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Enhancing fully printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cell performance using integrated metallic grids to improve carbon electrode conductivity / Dimitrios Raptis; Vasil Stoichkov; Simone Meroni; Adam Pockett; Carys A. Worsley; Matthew Carnie; David Worsley; Trystan Watson; Carys Worsley
Current Applied Physics, Volume: 20, Issue: 5, Pages: 619 - 627
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Carbon based Perovskite Solar cells (C–PSCs) have emerged as the most promising candidates for commercialisation in the field of perovskite photovoltaics, as they are highly stable, low cost and make use of easily scaled manufacturing techniques. However, the limited conductivity of the carbon elect...
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Carbon based Perovskite Solar cells (C–PSCs) have emerged as the most promising candidates for commercialisation in the field of perovskite photovoltaics, as they are highly stable, low cost and make use of easily scaled manufacturing techniques. However, the limited conductivity of the carbon electrode inhibits performance and represents a significant barrier to commercial application. Τhis work presents a scalable method for enhancing the carbon electrode conductivity through the integration of aluminium and copper grids into prefabricated C–PSCs. Adhered to the cells using an additional low temperature carbon ink, the metallic grids were found to dramatically reduce top electrode series resistance, leading to a large improvement in fill factor and efficiency. After grid integration, the 1 cm2 C–PSCs yielded power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.4% and 13% for copper and aluminium respectively, while standard C–PSCs obtained PCE of 11.3%. Performance is also significantly augmented in the case of larger-scale 11.7 cm2 modules, where PCEs went from 7.7% to 10% and 11% for aluminium and copper grids respectively. This technique offers a fast and low temperature route to high-performance, large-area C–PSCs and could therefore have serious potential for application to the high-volume manufacture of perovskite cells and modules.
Metallic grid, Highly conductive carbon electrode, Low temperature carbon ink, Carbon based perovskite solar cell, Module, Enhanced efficiency