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Modeling of the HIV-1 Life Cycle in Productively Infected Cells to Predict Novel Therapeutic Targets
Pathogens, Volume: 9, Issue: 4, Start page: 255
Swansea University Author: Igor Sazonov
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DOI (Published version): 10.3390/pathogens9040255
There are many studies that model the within-host population dynamics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the within-infected-cell replication of HIV-1 remains to be not comprehensively addressed. There exist rather few quantitative models describing the regulation of...
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There are many studies that model the within-host population dynamics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the within-infected-cell replication of HIV-1 remains to be not comprehensively addressed. There exist rather few quantitative models describing the regulation of the HIV-1 life cycle at the intracellular level. In treatment of HIV-1 infection, there remain issues related to side-effects and drug-resistance that require further search “...for new and better drugs, ideally targeting multiple independent steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle” (as highlighted recently by Tedbury & Freed, The Future of HIV-1 Therapeutics, 2015). High-resolution mathematical models of HIV-1 growth in infected cells provide an additional analytical tool in identifying novel drug targets. We formulate a high-dimensional model describing the biochemical reactions underlying the replication of HIV-1 in target cells. The model considers a nonlinear regulation of the transcription of HIV-1 mediated by Tat and the Rev-dependent transport of fully spliced and singly spliced transcripts from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The model is calibrated using available information on the kinetics of various stages of HIV-1 replication. The sensitivity analysis of the model is performed to rank the biochemical processes of HIV-1 replication with respect to their impact on the net production of virions by one actively infected cell. The ranking of the sensitivity factors provides a quantitative basis for identifying novel targets for antiviral therapy. Our analysis suggests that HIV-1 assembly depending on Gag and Tat-Rev regulation of transcription and mRNA distribution present two most critical stages in HIV-1 replication that can be targeted to effectively control virus production. These processes are not covered by current antiretroviral treatments.
HIV-1; intracellular replication; mathematical model; sensitivity analysis; antiviral targets