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Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms

Christopher Baker Orcid Logo, W. Bertsche, A. Capra, C. Carruth, C. L. Cesar, M. Charlton, A. Christensen, R. Collister, April Cridland Orcid Logo, Stefan Eriksson Orcid Logo, A. Evans, N. Evetts, J. Fajans Orcid Logo, T. Friesen, M. C. Fujiwara Orcid Logo, D. R. Gill, P. Grandemange, P. Granum Orcid Logo, J. S. Hangst, W. N. Hardy, M. E. Hayden, D. Hodgkinson, E. Hunter, Aled Isaac Orcid Logo, M. A. Johnson, J. M. Jones, S. A. Jones, S. Jonsell Orcid Logo, A. Khramov Orcid Logo, P. Knapp, L. Kurchaninov, Niels Madsen Orcid Logo, D. Maxwell, J. T. K. McKenna, S. Menary, J. M. Michan, T. Momose, Patrick Mullan, J. J. Munich Orcid Logo, K. Olchanski, A. Olin Orcid Logo, J. Peszka Orcid Logo, A. Powell, P. Pusa, C. Ø. Rasmussen Orcid Logo, F. Robicheaux Orcid Logo, R. L. Sacramento, M. Sameed, E. Sarid, D. M. Silveira, D. M. Starko, C. So, G. Stutter, T. D. Tharp, A. Thibeault, R. I. Thompson, Dirk van der Werf Orcid Logo, J. S. Wurtele Orcid Logo, Michael Charlton

Nature, Volume: 592, Issue: 7852, Pages: 35 - 42

Swansea University Authors: Christopher Baker Orcid Logo, April Cridland Orcid Logo, Stefan Eriksson Orcid Logo, Aled Isaac Orcid Logo, Niels Madsen Orcid Logo, Patrick Mullan, Dirk van der Werf Orcid Logo, Michael Charlton

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Abstract

The photon—the quantum excitation of the electromagnetic field—is massless but carries momentum. A photon can therefore exert a force on an object upon collision1. Slowing the translational motion of atoms and ions by application of such a force2,3, known as laser cooling, was first demonstrated 40...

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A photon can therefore exert a force on an object upon collision1. Slowing the translational motion of atoms and ions by application of such a force2,3, known as laser cooling, was first demonstrated 40 years ago4,5. It revolutionized atomic physics over the following decades6,7,8, and it is now a workhorse in many fields, including studies on quantum degenerate gases, quantum information, atomic clocks and tests of fundamental physics. However, this technique has not yet been applied to antimatter. Here we demonstrate laser cooling of antihydrogen9, the antimatter atom consisting of an antiproton and a positron. By exciting the 1S–2P transition in antihydrogen with pulsed, narrow-linewidth, Lyman-α laser radiation10,11, we Doppler-cool a sample of magnetically trapped antihydrogen. Although we apply laser cooling in only one dimension, the trap couples the longitudinal and transverse motions of the anti-atoms, leading to cooling in all three dimensions. We observe a reduction in the median transverse energy by more than an order of magnitude—with a substantial fraction of the anti-atoms attaining submicroelectronvolt transverse kinetic energies. We also report the observation of the laser-driven 1S–2S transition in samples of laser-cooled antihydrogen atoms. The observed spectral line is approximately four times narrower than that obtained without laser cooling. The demonstration of laser cooling and its immediate application has far-reaching implications for antimatter studies. A more localized, denser and colder sample of antihydrogen will drastically improve spectroscopic11,12,13 and gravitational14 studies of antihydrogen in ongoing experiments. Furthermore, the demonstrated ability to manipulate the motion of antimatter atoms by laser light will potentially provide ground-breaking opportunities for future experiments, such as anti-atomic fountains, anti-atom interferometry and the creation of antimatter molecules.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Nature</journal><volume>592</volume><journalNumber>7852</journalNumber><paginationStart>35</paginationStart><paginationEnd>42</paginationEnd><publisher>Springer Science and Business Media LLC</publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint>0028-0836</issnPrint><issnElectronic>1476-4687</issnElectronic><keywords/><publishedDay>1</publishedDay><publishedMonth>4</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2021</publishedYear><publishedDate>2021-04-01</publishedDate><doi>10.1038/s41586-021-03289-6</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Physics</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>SPH</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><funders>This work was supported by: the European Research Council through its Advanced Grant programme (JSH); CNPq, FAPERJ, RENAFAE (Brazil); NSERC, CFI, NRC/TRIUMF, EHPDS/EHDRS (Canada); FNU (Nice Centre), Carlsberg Foundation (Denmark); ISF (Israel); STFC, EPSRC, the Royal Society and the Leverhulme Trust (UK); DOE, NSF (USA); and VR (Sweden).</funders><projectreference/><lastEdited>2022-11-09T15:21:14.5622824</lastEdited><Created>2021-04-06T09:13:21.6433396</Created><path><level id="1">College of Science</level><level id="2">Physics</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Christopher</firstname><surname>Baker</surname><orcid>0000-0002-9448-8419</orcid><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>W.</firstname><surname>Bertsche</surname><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>A.</firstname><surname>Capra</surname><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>C.</firstname><surname>Carruth</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>C. L.</firstname><surname>Cesar</surname><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>M.</firstname><surname>Charlton</surname><order>6</order></author><author><firstname>A.</firstname><surname>Christensen</surname><order>7</order></author><author><firstname>R.</firstname><surname>Collister</surname><order>8</order></author><author><firstname>April</firstname><surname>Cridland</surname><orcid>0000-0003-4361-0266</orcid><order>9</order></author><author><firstname>Stefan</firstname><surname>Eriksson</surname><orcid>0000-0002-5390-1879</orcid><order>10</order></author><author><firstname>A.</firstname><surname>Evans</surname><order>11</order></author><author><firstname>N.</firstname><surname>Evetts</surname><order>12</order></author><author><firstname>J.</firstname><surname>Fajans</surname><orcid>0000-0002-4403-6027</orcid><order>13</order></author><author><firstname>T.</firstname><surname>Friesen</surname><order>14</order></author><author><firstname>M. C.</firstname><surname>Fujiwara</surname><orcid>0000-0002-9371-4904</orcid><order>15</order></author><author><firstname>D. R.</firstname><surname>Gill</surname><order>16</order></author><author><firstname>P.</firstname><surname>Grandemange</surname><order>17</order></author><author><firstname>P.</firstname><surname>Granum</surname><orcid>0000-0002-2710-266x</orcid><order>18</order></author><author><firstname>J. S.</firstname><surname>Hangst</surname><order>19</order></author><author><firstname>W. N.</firstname><surname>Hardy</surname><order>20</order></author><author><firstname>M. E.</firstname><surname>Hayden</surname><order>21</order></author><author><firstname>D.</firstname><surname>Hodgkinson</surname><order>22</order></author><author><firstname>E.</firstname><surname>Hunter</surname><order>23</order></author><author><firstname>Aled</firstname><surname>Isaac</surname><orcid>0000-0002-7813-1903</orcid><order>24</order></author><author><firstname>M. A.</firstname><surname>Johnson</surname><order>25</order></author><author><firstname>J. M.</firstname><surname>Jones</surname><order>26</order></author><author><firstname>S. A.</firstname><surname>Jones</surname><order>27</order></author><author><firstname>S.</firstname><surname>Jonsell</surname><orcid>0000-0003-4969-1714</orcid><order>28</order></author><author><firstname>A.</firstname><surname>Khramov</surname><orcid>0000-0001-7218-8549</orcid><order>29</order></author><author><firstname>P.</firstname><surname>Knapp</surname><order>30</order></author><author><firstname>L.</firstname><surname>Kurchaninov</surname><order>31</order></author><author><firstname>Niels</firstname><surname>Madsen</surname><orcid>0000-0002-7372-0784</orcid><order>32</order></author><author><firstname>D.</firstname><surname>Maxwell</surname><order>33</order></author><author><firstname>J. T. 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spelling v2 56625 2021-04-06 Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms 0c72afb63bd0c6089fc5b60bd096103e 0000-0002-9448-8419 Christopher Baker Christopher Baker true false e3c734cfda1e0b3835968762f39525cc 0000-0003-4361-0266 April Cridland April Cridland true false 785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8 0000-0002-5390-1879 Stefan Eriksson Stefan Eriksson true false 06d7ed42719ef7bb697cf780c63e26f0 0000-0002-7813-1903 Aled Isaac Aled Isaac true false e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303 0000-0002-7372-0784 Niels Madsen Niels Madsen true false d5167e8661859aff63e7984b1a421667 Patrick Mullan Patrick Mullan true false 4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a 0000-0001-5436-5214 Dirk van der Werf Dirk van der Werf true false d9099cdd0f182eb9a1c8fc36ed94f53f Michael Charlton Michael Charlton true false 2021-04-06 SPH The photon—the quantum excitation of the electromagnetic field—is massless but carries momentum. A photon can therefore exert a force on an object upon collision1. Slowing the translational motion of atoms and ions by application of such a force2,3, known as laser cooling, was first demonstrated 40 years ago4,5. It revolutionized atomic physics over the following decades6,7,8, and it is now a workhorse in many fields, including studies on quantum degenerate gases, quantum information, atomic clocks and tests of fundamental physics. However, this technique has not yet been applied to antimatter. Here we demonstrate laser cooling of antihydrogen9, the antimatter atom consisting of an antiproton and a positron. By exciting the 1S–2P transition in antihydrogen with pulsed, narrow-linewidth, Lyman-α laser radiation10,11, we Doppler-cool a sample of magnetically trapped antihydrogen. Although we apply laser cooling in only one dimension, the trap couples the longitudinal and transverse motions of the anti-atoms, leading to cooling in all three dimensions. We observe a reduction in the median transverse energy by more than an order of magnitude—with a substantial fraction of the anti-atoms attaining submicroelectronvolt transverse kinetic energies. We also report the observation of the laser-driven 1S–2S transition in samples of laser-cooled antihydrogen atoms. The observed spectral line is approximately four times narrower than that obtained without laser cooling. The demonstration of laser cooling and its immediate application has far-reaching implications for antimatter studies. A more localized, denser and colder sample of antihydrogen will drastically improve spectroscopic11,12,13 and gravitational14 studies of antihydrogen in ongoing experiments. Furthermore, the demonstrated ability to manipulate the motion of antimatter atoms by laser light will potentially provide ground-breaking opportunities for future experiments, such as anti-atomic fountains, anti-atom interferometry and the creation of antimatter molecules. Journal Article Nature 592 7852 35 42 Springer Science and Business Media LLC 0028-0836 1476-4687 1 4 2021 2021-04-01 10.1038/s41586-021-03289-6 COLLEGE NANME Physics COLLEGE CODE SPH Swansea University This work was supported by: the European Research Council through its Advanced Grant programme (JSH); CNPq, FAPERJ, RENAFAE (Brazil); NSERC, CFI, NRC/TRIUMF, EHPDS/EHDRS (Canada); FNU (Nice Centre), Carlsberg Foundation (Denmark); ISF (Israel); STFC, EPSRC, the Royal Society and the Leverhulme Trust (UK); DOE, NSF (USA); and VR (Sweden). 2022-11-09T15:21:14.5622824 2021-04-06T09:13:21.6433396 College of Science Physics Christopher Baker 0000-0002-9448-8419 1 W. Bertsche 2 A. Capra 3 C. Carruth 4 C. L. Cesar 5 M. Charlton 6 A. Christensen 7 R. Collister 8 April Cridland 0000-0003-4361-0266 9 Stefan Eriksson 0000-0002-5390-1879 10 A. Evans 11 N. Evetts 12 J. Fajans 0000-0002-4403-6027 13 T. Friesen 14 M. C. Fujiwara 0000-0002-9371-4904 15 D. R. Gill 16 P. Grandemange 17 P. Granum 0000-0002-2710-266x 18 J. S. Hangst 19 W. N. Hardy 20 M. E. Hayden 21 D. Hodgkinson 22 E. Hunter 23 Aled Isaac 0000-0002-7813-1903 24 M. A. Johnson 25 J. M. Jones 26 S. A. Jones 27 S. Jonsell 0000-0003-4969-1714 28 A. Khramov 0000-0001-7218-8549 29 P. Knapp 30 L. Kurchaninov 31 Niels Madsen 0000-0002-7372-0784 32 D. Maxwell 33 J. T. K. McKenna 34 S. Menary 35 J. M. Michan 36 T. Momose 37 Patrick Mullan 38 J. J. Munich 0000-0001-7475-3070 39 K. Olchanski 40 A. Olin 0000-0001-8055-7180 41 J. Peszka 0000-0002-5140-8079 42 A. Powell 43 P. Pusa 44 C. Ø. Rasmussen 0000-0002-6029-1730 45 F. Robicheaux 0000-0002-8054-6040 46 R. L. Sacramento 47 M. Sameed 48 E. Sarid 49 D. M. Silveira 50 D. M. Starko 51 C. So 52 G. Stutter 53 T. D. Tharp 54 A. Thibeault 55 R. I. Thompson 56 Dirk van der Werf 0000-0001-5436-5214 57 J. S. Wurtele 0000-0001-8401-0297 58 Michael Charlton 59 56625__19748__64c82454722445cdbca6ce04100fe0c5.pdf 56625.pdf 2021-04-23T16:51:20.5584225 Output 3836231 application/pdf Version of Record true © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms
spellingShingle Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms
Christopher Baker
April Cridland
Stefan Eriksson
Aled Isaac
Niels Madsen
Patrick Mullan
Dirk van der Werf
Michael Charlton
title_short Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms
title_full Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms
title_fullStr Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms
title_full_unstemmed Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms
title_sort Laser cooling of antihydrogen atoms
author_id_str_mv 0c72afb63bd0c6089fc5b60bd096103e
e3c734cfda1e0b3835968762f39525cc
785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8
06d7ed42719ef7bb697cf780c63e26f0
e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303
d5167e8661859aff63e7984b1a421667
4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a
d9099cdd0f182eb9a1c8fc36ed94f53f
author_id_fullname_str_mv 0c72afb63bd0c6089fc5b60bd096103e_***_Christopher Baker
e3c734cfda1e0b3835968762f39525cc_***_April Cridland
785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8_***_Stefan Eriksson
06d7ed42719ef7bb697cf780c63e26f0_***_Aled Isaac
e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303_***_Niels Madsen
d5167e8661859aff63e7984b1a421667_***_Patrick Mullan
4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a_***_Dirk van der Werf
d9099cdd0f182eb9a1c8fc36ed94f53f_***_Michael Charlton
author Christopher Baker
April Cridland
Stefan Eriksson
Aled Isaac
Niels Madsen
Patrick Mullan
Dirk van der Werf
Michael Charlton
author2 Christopher Baker
W. Bertsche
A. Capra
C. Carruth
C. L. Cesar
M. Charlton
A. Christensen
R. Collister
April Cridland
Stefan Eriksson
A. Evans
N. Evetts
J. Fajans
T. Friesen
M. C. Fujiwara
D. R. Gill
P. Grandemange
P. Granum
J. S. Hangst
W. N. Hardy
M. E. Hayden
D. Hodgkinson
E. Hunter
Aled Isaac
M. A. Johnson
J. M. Jones
S. A. Jones
S. Jonsell
A. Khramov
P. Knapp
L. Kurchaninov
Niels Madsen
D. Maxwell
J. T. K. McKenna
S. Menary
J. M. Michan
T. Momose
Patrick Mullan
J. J. Munich
K. Olchanski
A. Olin
J. Peszka
A. Powell
P. Pusa
C. Ø. Rasmussen
F. Robicheaux
R. L. Sacramento
M. Sameed
E. Sarid
D. M. Silveira
D. M. Starko
C. So
G. Stutter
T. D. Tharp
A. Thibeault
R. I. Thompson
Dirk van der Werf
J. S. Wurtele
Michael Charlton
format Journal article
container_title Nature
container_volume 592
container_issue 7852
container_start_page 35
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 0028-0836
1476-4687
doi_str_mv 10.1038/s41586-021-03289-6
publisher Springer Science and Business Media LLC
college_str College of Science
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hierarchy_top_id collegeofscience
hierarchy_top_title College of Science
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofscience
hierarchy_parent_title College of Science
department_str Physics{{{_:::_}}}College of Science{{{_:::_}}}Physics
document_store_str 1
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description The photon—the quantum excitation of the electromagnetic field—is massless but carries momentum. A photon can therefore exert a force on an object upon collision1. Slowing the translational motion of atoms and ions by application of such a force2,3, known as laser cooling, was first demonstrated 40 years ago4,5. It revolutionized atomic physics over the following decades6,7,8, and it is now a workhorse in many fields, including studies on quantum degenerate gases, quantum information, atomic clocks and tests of fundamental physics. However, this technique has not yet been applied to antimatter. Here we demonstrate laser cooling of antihydrogen9, the antimatter atom consisting of an antiproton and a positron. By exciting the 1S–2P transition in antihydrogen with pulsed, narrow-linewidth, Lyman-α laser radiation10,11, we Doppler-cool a sample of magnetically trapped antihydrogen. Although we apply laser cooling in only one dimension, the trap couples the longitudinal and transverse motions of the anti-atoms, leading to cooling in all three dimensions. We observe a reduction in the median transverse energy by more than an order of magnitude—with a substantial fraction of the anti-atoms attaining submicroelectronvolt transverse kinetic energies. We also report the observation of the laser-driven 1S–2S transition in samples of laser-cooled antihydrogen atoms. The observed spectral line is approximately four times narrower than that obtained without laser cooling. The demonstration of laser cooling and its immediate application has far-reaching implications for antimatter studies. A more localized, denser and colder sample of antihydrogen will drastically improve spectroscopic11,12,13 and gravitational14 studies of antihydrogen in ongoing experiments. Furthermore, the demonstrated ability to manipulate the motion of antimatter atoms by laser light will potentially provide ground-breaking opportunities for future experiments, such as anti-atomic fountains, anti-atom interferometry and the creation of antimatter molecules.
published_date 2021-04-01T15:21:13Z
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