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Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers

Chris J. Barnett Orcid Logo, James D. McGettrick, Varun Shenoy Gangoli, Ewa Kazimierska, Alvin Orbaek White Orcid Logo, Andrew Barron Orcid Logo, Christopher Barnett, James McGettrick Orcid Logo, Varun Gangoli Orcid Logo, Ewa Kazimierska

Materials, Volume: 14, Issue: 9, Start page: 2106

Swansea University Authors: Alvin Orbaek White Orcid Logo, Andrew Barron Orcid Logo, Christopher Barnett, James McGettrick Orcid Logo, Varun Gangoli Orcid Logo, Ewa Kazimierska

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DOI (Published version): 10.3390/ma14092106

Abstract

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be spun into fibers as potential lightweight replacements for copper in electrical current transmission since lightweight CNT fibers weigh <1/6th that of an equivalently dimensioned copper wire. Experimentally, it has been shown that the electrical resistance of CNT fi...

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Published in: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
Published: MDPI AG 2021
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Experimentally, it has been shown that the electrical resistance of CNT fibers increases with longitudinal strain; however, although fibers may be under radial strain when they are compressed during crimping at contacts for use in electrical current transport, there has been no study of this relationship. Herein, we apply radial stress at the contact to a CNT fiber on both the nano- and macro-scale and measure the changes in fiber and contact resistance. We observed an increase in resistance with increasing pressure on the nanoscale as well as initially on the macro scale, which we attribute to the decreasing of axial CNT&#x2026;CNT contacts. On the macro scale, the resistance then decreases with increased pressure, which we attribute to improved radial contact due to the closing of voids within the fiber bundle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) show that applied pressure on the fiber can damage the &#x3C0;&#x2013;&#x3C0; bonding, which could also contribute to the increased resistance. As such, care must be taken when applying radial strain on CNT fibers in applications, including crimping for electrical contacts, lest they operate in an unfavorable regime with worse electrical performance.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Materials</journal><volume>14</volume><journalNumber>9</journalNumber><paginationStart>2106</paginationStart><paginationEnd/><publisher>MDPI AG</publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint/><issnElectronic>1996-1944</issnElectronic><keywords>carbon nanotubes; fiber; pressure; XPS; conduction</keywords><publishedDay>21</publishedDay><publishedMonth>4</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2021</publishedYear><publishedDate>2021-04-21</publishedDate><doi>10.3390/ma14092106</doi><url>http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092106</url><notes>The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author.</notes><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Chemical Engineering</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>CHEG</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><funders>This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research (N00014-2717), the Welsh Government S&#xEA;r Cymru National Research Network in Advanced Engineering and Materials (NRN-150), and the EPSRC (EP/N020863/1). 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spelling 2022-07-07T13:58:36.4615214 v2 56930 2021-05-20 Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers 8414a23650d4403fdfe1a735dbd2e24e 0000-0001-6338-5970 Alvin Orbaek White Alvin Orbaek White true false 92e452f20936d688d36f91c78574241d 0000-0002-2018-8288 Andrew Barron Andrew Barron true false 3cc4b7c0dcf59d3ff31f9f13b0e5a831 Christopher Barnett Christopher Barnett true false bdbacc591e2de05180e0fd3cc13fa480 0000-0002-7719-2958 James McGettrick James McGettrick true false 677b4758fd9d95755d516b096be7d396 0000-0001-5313-5839 Varun Gangoli Varun Gangoli true false acd104d55246ee2d03420795510359e9 Ewa Kazimierska Ewa Kazimierska true false 2021-05-20 CHEG Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be spun into fibers as potential lightweight replacements for copper in electrical current transmission since lightweight CNT fibers weigh <1/6th that of an equivalently dimensioned copper wire. Experimentally, it has been shown that the electrical resistance of CNT fibers increases with longitudinal strain; however, although fibers may be under radial strain when they are compressed during crimping at contacts for use in electrical current transport, there has been no study of this relationship. Herein, we apply radial stress at the contact to a CNT fiber on both the nano- and macro-scale and measure the changes in fiber and contact resistance. We observed an increase in resistance with increasing pressure on the nanoscale as well as initially on the macro scale, which we attribute to the decreasing of axial CNT…CNT contacts. On the macro scale, the resistance then decreases with increased pressure, which we attribute to improved radial contact due to the closing of voids within the fiber bundle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) show that applied pressure on the fiber can damage the π–π bonding, which could also contribute to the increased resistance. As such, care must be taken when applying radial strain on CNT fibers in applications, including crimping for electrical contacts, lest they operate in an unfavorable regime with worse electrical performance. Journal Article Materials 14 9 2106 MDPI AG 1996-1944 carbon nanotubes; fiber; pressure; XPS; conduction 21 4 2021 2021-04-21 10.3390/ma14092106 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092106 The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author. COLLEGE NANME Chemical Engineering COLLEGE CODE CHEG Swansea University This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research (N00014-2717), the Welsh Government Sêr Cymru National Research Network in Advanced Engineering and Materials (NRN-150), and the EPSRC (EP/N020863/1). The authors thank Swansea University AIM Facility via EPSRC (EP/M028267/1) and the Welsh European Funding Office (Project 80708) for funding the XPS facility. 2022-07-07T13:58:36.4615214 2021-05-20T09:46:32.8000057 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Uncategorised Chris J. Barnett 0000-0002-0139-836x 1 James D. McGettrick 2 Varun Shenoy Gangoli 3 Ewa Kazimierska 4 Alvin Orbaek White 0000-0001-6338-5970 5 Andrew Barron 0000-0002-2018-8288 6 Christopher Barnett 7 James McGettrick 0000-0002-7719-2958 8 Varun Gangoli 0000-0001-5313-5839 9 Ewa Kazimierska 10 56930__19949__56a39772832c466495ba9de31e2648e3.pdf 56930.pdf 2021-05-20T09:48:03.0693597 Output 3642071 application/pdf Version of Record true © 2021 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers
spellingShingle Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers
Alvin Orbaek White
Andrew Barron
Christopher Barnett
James McGettrick
Varun Gangoli
Ewa Kazimierska
title_short Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers
title_full Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers
title_fullStr Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers
title_full_unstemmed Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers
title_sort Effect of Applied Pressure on the Electrical Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Fibers
author_id_str_mv 8414a23650d4403fdfe1a735dbd2e24e
92e452f20936d688d36f91c78574241d
3cc4b7c0dcf59d3ff31f9f13b0e5a831
bdbacc591e2de05180e0fd3cc13fa480
677b4758fd9d95755d516b096be7d396
acd104d55246ee2d03420795510359e9
author_id_fullname_str_mv 8414a23650d4403fdfe1a735dbd2e24e_***_Alvin Orbaek White
92e452f20936d688d36f91c78574241d_***_Andrew Barron
3cc4b7c0dcf59d3ff31f9f13b0e5a831_***_Christopher Barnett
bdbacc591e2de05180e0fd3cc13fa480_***_James McGettrick
677b4758fd9d95755d516b096be7d396_***_Varun Gangoli
acd104d55246ee2d03420795510359e9_***_Ewa Kazimierska
author Alvin Orbaek White
Andrew Barron
Christopher Barnett
James McGettrick
Varun Gangoli
Ewa Kazimierska
author2 Chris J. Barnett
James D. McGettrick
Varun Shenoy Gangoli
Ewa Kazimierska
Alvin Orbaek White
Andrew Barron
Christopher Barnett
James McGettrick
Varun Gangoli
Ewa Kazimierska
format Journal article
container_title Materials
container_volume 14
container_issue 9
container_start_page 2106
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 1996-1944
doi_str_mv 10.3390/ma14092106
publisher MDPI AG
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Uncategorised{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Uncategorised
url http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092106
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be spun into fibers as potential lightweight replacements for copper in electrical current transmission since lightweight CNT fibers weigh <1/6th that of an equivalently dimensioned copper wire. Experimentally, it has been shown that the electrical resistance of CNT fibers increases with longitudinal strain; however, although fibers may be under radial strain when they are compressed during crimping at contacts for use in electrical current transport, there has been no study of this relationship. Herein, we apply radial stress at the contact to a CNT fiber on both the nano- and macro-scale and measure the changes in fiber and contact resistance. We observed an increase in resistance with increasing pressure on the nanoscale as well as initially on the macro scale, which we attribute to the decreasing of axial CNT…CNT contacts. On the macro scale, the resistance then decreases with increased pressure, which we attribute to improved radial contact due to the closing of voids within the fiber bundle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) show that applied pressure on the fiber can damage the π–π bonding, which could also contribute to the increased resistance. As such, care must be taken when applying radial strain on CNT fibers in applications, including crimping for electrical contacts, lest they operate in an unfavorable regime with worse electrical performance.
published_date 2021-04-21T04:07:40Z
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