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Controlled and permanent induced Fermi shifts and upwards band bending in ZnO nanorods by surface stripping with argon bombardment
Materials Letters, Volume: 301, Start page: 130288
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Optimised ZnO nanorod characteristics are essential for novel devices to operate efficiently, especially shifting the n-type nature towards intrinsic or p-type. The effects of argon bombardment for varying amounts of time on the surface chemistry and Fermi level of ZnO nanorods have been studied usi...
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Optimised ZnO nanorod characteristics are essential for novel devices to operate efficiently, especially shifting the n-type nature towards intrinsic or p-type. The effects of argon bombardment for varying amounts of time on the surface chemistry and Fermi level of ZnO nanorods have been studied using XPS. Bombardment at 5 keV removed surface contamination caused by amorphous carbon and OH-, H2O and C-O groups. The bombardment also causes the O1s, Zn2p and valence band to shift to lower binding energies, indicating a shift towards intrinsic behaviour. Bombardment time can be used to effect a shift up to 0.8 eV, and this shift remains after the nanorods were re-contaminated by exposure to ambient conditions for 28 days. These results indicate that argon bombardment can permanently shift the n-type nature of ZnO to intrinsic for use in novel devices.
ZnO, nanorod, argon bombardment, XPS, Fermi Shift
College of Engineering
Financial support was provided by the Flexible Integrated Energy Systems (FLEXIS) operations funded by the Welsh European Funding Office (WEFO) through the Welsh. Government, and the Robert A. Welch Foundation (C-0002). The Welsh Government is also acknowledged for Sêr Cymru Circular Economy fund and the Sêr Cymru II Fellowships (A.O.W) part funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). XPS facilities and J. Mc are part funded by WEFO (80708) and EPSRC (EP/P030068/1 & EP/M028267/1)