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Normalisation process theory and the implementation of a new glaucoma clinical pathway in hospital eye services: Perspectives of doctors, nurses and optometrists
PLOS ONE, Volume: 16, Issue: 8, Start page: e0255564
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BackgroundNormalisation process theory reports the importance of contextual integration in successfully embedding novel interventions, with recent propositions detailing the role that ‘plasticity’ of intervention components and ‘elasticity’ of an intended setting contribute. We report on the introdu...
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BackgroundNormalisation process theory reports the importance of contextual integration in successfully embedding novel interventions, with recent propositions detailing the role that ‘plasticity’ of intervention components and ‘elasticity’ of an intended setting contribute. We report on the introduction of a clinical pathway assessing patient non-responsiveness to treatment for glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing the Cardiff Model of Glaucoma Care into hospital eye services, identifying any issues of acceptability for staff through the filter of normalisation process theory.MethodsA prospective observational study was undertaken in four hospital eye services. This incorporated detailed qualitative semi-structured interviews with staff (n = 8) to gather their perceptions on the intervention’s usefulness and practicality. In addition, observational field notes of patient and staff consultations (n = 88) were collected, as well as broader organisational observations from within the research sites (n = 52). Data collection and analysis was informed by the normalisation process theory framework.ResultsStaff reported the pathway led to beneficial knowledge on managing patient treatment, but the model was sometimes perceived as overly prescriptive. This perception varied significantly based on the composition of clinics in relation to staff experience, staff availability and pre-existing clinical structures. The most commonly recounted barrier came in contextually integrating into sites where wider administrative systems were inflexible to intervention components.ConclusionsFlexibility will be the key determinant of whether the clinical pathway can progress to wider implementation. Addressing the complexity and variation associated with practice between clinics required a remodelling of the pathway to maintain its central benefits but enhance its plasticity. Our study therefore helps to confirm propositions developed in relation to normalisation process theory, contextual integration, intervention plasticity, and setting elasticity. This enables the transferability of findings to healthcare settings other than ophthalmology, where any novel intervention is implemented.
College of Human and Health Sciences
This research was funded in full by the Health and Care Research Wales Research for Patient and Public Benefit fund, ref: RfPPB-16a-1296.