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Sterols, Oxysterols, and Accessible Cholesterol: Signalling for Homeostasis, in Immunity and During Development
Frontiers in Physiology, Volume: 12
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Copyright © 2021 Griffiths and Wang. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.Download (9.98MB)
In this article we discuss the concept of accessible plasma membrane cholesterol and its involvement as a signalling molecule. Changes in plasma membrane accessible cholesterol, although only being minor in the context of total cholesterol plasma membrane cholesterol and total cell cholesterol, are...
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In this article we discuss the concept of accessible plasma membrane cholesterol and its involvement as a signalling molecule. Changes in plasma membrane accessible cholesterol, although only being minor in the context of total cholesterol plasma membrane cholesterol and total cell cholesterol, are a key regulator of overall cellular cholesterol homeostasis by the SREBP pathway. Accessible cholesterol also provides the second messenger between patched 1 and smoothened in the hedgehog signalling pathway important during development, and its depletion may provide a mechanism of resistance to microbial pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. We revise the hypothesis that oxysterols are a signalling form of cholesterol, in this instance as a rapidly acting and paracrine version of accessible cholesterol.
25-hydroxycholesterol, SREBP pathway, INSIG, HMG-CoA reductase, SARS-CoV-2, hedgehogsignalling pathway, cholesterol dependent cytolysin
Swansea University Medical School
This work was supported by the UKRI Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC; grant numbers BB/I001735/1 and BB/N015932/1 to WG and BB/L001942/1 to YW), and the Welsh Government and the European Union through European Structural Funds