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Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials

Benjamin M. Rumney Orcid Logo, Siân R. Morgan Orcid Logo, J. Frederick W. Mosselmans Orcid Logo, Tegwen Malik Orcid Logo, Simon J. Holden, Andrew R. Parker, Nick White, Philip N. Lewis Orcid Logo, Julie Albon Orcid Logo, Keith M. Meek Orcid Logo

Marine Biology, Volume: 169, Issue: 6

Swansea University Author: Tegwen Malik Orcid Logo

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Abstract

The protective carapace of Skogsbergia lerneri, a marine ostracod, is scratch-resistant and transparent. The compositional and structural organisation of the carapace that underlies these properties is unknown. In this study, we aimed to quantify and determine the distribution of chemical elements a...

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Published in: Marine Biology
ISSN: 0025-3162 1432-1793
Published: Springer Science and Business Media LLC 2022
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa59691
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In this study, we aimed to quantify and determine the distribution of chemical elements and chitin within the carapace of adult ostracods, as well as at different stages of ostracod development, to gain insight into its composition. Elemental analyses included X-ray absorption near-edge structure, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Nonlinear microscopy and spectral imaging were performed to determine chitin distribution within the carapace. High levels of calcium (20.3%) and substantial levels of magnesium (1.89%) were identified throughout development. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was detected in carapaces of all developmental stages, with the polymorph, aragonite, identified in A-1 and adult carapaces. Novel chitin-derived second harmonic generation signals (430/5 nm) were detected. 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spelling 2022-07-14T11:54:22.8143891 v2 59691 2022-03-22 Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials d7e74f3c3979dff2baba1a16fe50e24a 0000-0003-4315-5726 Tegwen Malik Tegwen Malik true false 2022-03-22 BBU The protective carapace of Skogsbergia lerneri, a marine ostracod, is scratch-resistant and transparent. The compositional and structural organisation of the carapace that underlies these properties is unknown. In this study, we aimed to quantify and determine the distribution of chemical elements and chitin within the carapace of adult ostracods, as well as at different stages of ostracod development, to gain insight into its composition. Elemental analyses included X-ray absorption near-edge structure, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Nonlinear microscopy and spectral imaging were performed to determine chitin distribution within the carapace. High levels of calcium (20.3%) and substantial levels of magnesium (1.89%) were identified throughout development. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was detected in carapaces of all developmental stages, with the polymorph, aragonite, identified in A-1 and adult carapaces. Novel chitin-derived second harmonic generation signals (430/5 nm) were detected. Quantification of relative chitin content within the developing and adult carapaces identified negligible differences in chitin content between developmental stages and adult carapaces, except for the lower chitin contribution in A-2 (66.8 ± 7.6%) compared to A-5 (85.5 ± 10%) (p = 0.03). Skogsbergia lerneri carapace calcium carbonate composition was distinct to other myodocopid ostracods. These calcium polymorphs and ACC are described in other biological transparent materials, and with the consistent chitin distribution throughout S. lerneri development, may imply a biological adaptation to preserve carapace physical properties. Realisation of S. lerneri carapace synthesis and structural organisation will enable exploitation to manufacture biomaterials and biomimetics with huge potential in industrial and military applications. Journal Article Marine Biology 169 6 Springer Science and Business Media LLC 0025-3162 1432-1793 Ostracod, Skogsbergia lerneri, Development, X-ray fluorescence, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray analysis near-edge structure, Nonlinear microscopy, Second harmonic generation, Two-photon excited fluorescence 1 6 2022 2022-06-01 10.1007/s00227-022-04047-6 COLLEGE NANME Business COLLEGE CODE BBU Swansea University Other DSTL (Framework Agreement Number DSTL/AGR/R/CBRN/01) and BMR is funded by a Wellcome Trust [204824/Z/16/Z] ISSF3 Consolidator Award. Synchrotron beam time was awarded by STFC Diamond for access to Beamline I18 (SP19081). 2022-07-14T11:54:22.8143891 2022-03-22T11:15:43.6341519 Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences School of Management - Business Management Benjamin M. Rumney 0000-0001-7854-9739 1 Siân R. Morgan 0000-0003-4322-5763 2 J. Frederick W. Mosselmans 0000-0001-6473-2743 3 Tegwen Malik 0000-0003-4315-5726 4 Simon J. Holden 5 Andrew R. Parker 6 Nick White 7 Philip N. Lewis 0000-0003-4253-998x 8 Julie Albon 0000-0002-3029-8245 9 Keith M. Meek 0000-0002-9948-7538 10 59691__24243__56988647f5524613ad44921d2c30be30.pdf VoR.pdf 2022-06-07T13:03:05.7574883 Output 3187542 application/pdf Version of Record true This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials
spellingShingle Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials
Tegwen Malik
title_short Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials
title_full Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials
title_fullStr Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials
title_full_unstemmed Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials
title_sort Characterisation of carapace composition in developing and adult ostracods (Skogsbergia lerneri) and its potential for biomaterials
author_id_str_mv d7e74f3c3979dff2baba1a16fe50e24a
author_id_fullname_str_mv d7e74f3c3979dff2baba1a16fe50e24a_***_Tegwen Malik
author Tegwen Malik
author2 Benjamin M. Rumney
Siân R. Morgan
J. Frederick W. Mosselmans
Tegwen Malik
Simon J. Holden
Andrew R. Parker
Nick White
Philip N. Lewis
Julie Albon
Keith M. Meek
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container_title Marine Biology
container_volume 169
container_issue 6
publishDate 2022
institution Swansea University
issn 0025-3162
1432-1793
doi_str_mv 10.1007/s00227-022-04047-6
publisher Springer Science and Business Media LLC
college_str Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
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hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofhumanitiesandsocialsciences
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
department_str School of Management - Business Management{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences{{{_:::_}}}School of Management - Business Management
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description The protective carapace of Skogsbergia lerneri, a marine ostracod, is scratch-resistant and transparent. The compositional and structural organisation of the carapace that underlies these properties is unknown. In this study, we aimed to quantify and determine the distribution of chemical elements and chitin within the carapace of adult ostracods, as well as at different stages of ostracod development, to gain insight into its composition. Elemental analyses included X-ray absorption near-edge structure, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Nonlinear microscopy and spectral imaging were performed to determine chitin distribution within the carapace. High levels of calcium (20.3%) and substantial levels of magnesium (1.89%) were identified throughout development. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) was detected in carapaces of all developmental stages, with the polymorph, aragonite, identified in A-1 and adult carapaces. Novel chitin-derived second harmonic generation signals (430/5 nm) were detected. Quantification of relative chitin content within the developing and adult carapaces identified negligible differences in chitin content between developmental stages and adult carapaces, except for the lower chitin contribution in A-2 (66.8 ± 7.6%) compared to A-5 (85.5 ± 10%) (p = 0.03). Skogsbergia lerneri carapace calcium carbonate composition was distinct to other myodocopid ostracods. These calcium polymorphs and ACC are described in other biological transparent materials, and with the consistent chitin distribution throughout S. lerneri development, may imply a biological adaptation to preserve carapace physical properties. Realisation of S. lerneri carapace synthesis and structural organisation will enable exploitation to manufacture biomaterials and biomimetics with huge potential in industrial and military applications.
published_date 2022-06-01T04:17:11Z
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