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Age- and sex-specific effects of a long-term lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiometabolic health markers in adults with prediabetes: results from the diabetes prevention study PREVIEW

Ruixin Zhu Orcid Logo, Ionut Craciun Orcid Logo, Jan Bernhards-Werge Orcid Logo, Elli Jalo Orcid Logo, Sally D. Poppitt Orcid Logo, Marta P. Silvestre Orcid Logo, Maija Huttunen-Lenz Orcid Logo, Melitta McNarry Orcid Logo, Gareth Stratton Orcid Logo, Svetoslav Handjiev Orcid Logo, Teodora Handjieva-Darlenska Orcid Logo, Santiago Navas-Carretero Orcid Logo, Jouko Sundvall, Tanja C. Adam Orcid Logo, Mathijs Drummen Orcid Logo, Elizabeth J. Simpson Orcid Logo, Ian A. Macdonald Orcid Logo, Jennie Brand-Miller Orcid Logo, Roslyn Muirhead Orcid Logo, Tony Lam Orcid Logo, Pia S. Vestentoft Orcid Logo, Kristine Færch Orcid Logo, J. Alfredo Martinez Orcid Logo, Mikael Fogelholm Orcid Logo, Anne Raben Orcid Logo

Diabetologia, Volume: 65, Issue: 8, Pages: 1262 - 1277

Swansea University Authors: Melitta McNarry Orcid Logo, Gareth Stratton Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Aims/hypothesisLifestyle interventions are the first-line treatment option for body weight and cardiometabolic health management. However, whether age groups or women and men respond differently to lifestyle interventions is under debate. We aimed to examine age- and sex-specific effects of a low-en...

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Published in: Diabetologia
ISSN: 0012-186X 1432-0428
Published: Springer Science and Business Media LLC 2022
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa60086
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Abstract: Aims/hypothesisLifestyle interventions are the first-line treatment option for body weight and cardiometabolic health management. However, whether age groups or women and men respond differently to lifestyle interventions is under debate. We aimed to examine age- and sex-specific effects of a low-energy diet (LED) followed by a long-term lifestyle intervention on body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic health markers in adults with prediabetes (i.e. impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance).MethodsThis observational study used longitudinal data from 2223 overweight participants with prediabetes in the multicentre diabetes prevention study PREVIEW. The participants underwent a LED-induced rapid weight loss (WL) period followed by a 3 year lifestyle-based weight maintenance (WM) intervention. Changes in outcomes of interest in prespecified age (younger: 25–45 years; middle-aged: 46–54 years; older: 55–70 years) or sex (women and men) groups were compared.ResultsIn total, 783 younger, 319 middle-aged and 1121 older adults and 1503 women and 720 men were included in the analysis. In the available case and complete case analyses, multivariable-adjusted linear mixed models showed that younger and older adults had similar weight loss after the LED, whereas older adults had greater sustained weight loss after the WM intervention (adjusted difference for older vs younger adults −1.25% [95% CI −1.92, −0.58], p<0.001). After the WM intervention, older adults lost more fat-free mass and bone mass and had smaller improvements in 2 h plasma glucose (adjusted difference for older vs younger adults 0.65 mmol/l [95% CI 0.50, 0.80], p<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (adjusted difference for older vs younger adults 2.57 mmHg [95% CI 1.37, 3.77], p<0.001) than younger adults. Older adults had smaller decreases in fasting and 2 h glucose, HbA1c and systolic blood pressure after the WM intervention than middle-aged adults. In the complete case analysis, the above-mentioned differences between middle-aged and older adults disappeared, but the direction of the effect size did not change. After the WL period, compared with men, women had less weight loss (adjusted difference for women vs men 1.78% [95% CI 1.12, 2.43], p<0.001) with greater fat-free mass and bone mass loss and smaller improvements in HbA1c, LDL-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. After the WM intervention, women had greater fat-free mass and bone mass loss and smaller improvements in HbA1c and LDL-cholesterol, while they had greater improvements in fasting glucose, triacylglycerol (adjusted difference for women vs men −0.08 mmol/l [−0.11, −0.04], p<0.001) and HDL-cholesterol.Conclusions/interpretationOlder adults benefited less from a lifestyle intervention in relation to body composition and cardiometabolic health markers than younger adults, despite greater sustained weight loss. Women benefited less from a LED followed by a lifestyle intervention in relation to body weight and body composition than men. Future interventions targeting older adults or women should take prevention of fat-free mass and bone mass loss into consideration.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Men, Middle-aged people, Obesity, Older people, Weight loss, Weight loss maintenance, Women, Young people
College: Faculty of Science and Engineering
Funders: Open Access funding provided by University of Helsinki including Helsinki University Central Hospital. This research was supported by the EU Seventh Framework Programme (FP7; 2007–2013) (grant no. 312057); National Health and Medical Research Council (EU Collaborative Grant AUS 8, ID 1067711); Glycemic Index Foundation Australia through royalties to the University of Sydney; Health Research Council of New Zealand (grant no. 14/191) and University of Auckland Faculty Research Development Fund; Cambridge Weight Plan, which donated all products for the 8 week weight loss period; Danish Agriculture & Food Council; Danish Meat Research Institute; National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre (NIHR BRC) (UK); Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) (UK); Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (UK); Nutritics (Dublin), which donated all dietary analysis software used by the University of Nottingham; Juho Vainio Foundation (Finland); Academy of Finland (grant nos 272376, 314383, 266286 and 314135); Finnish Medical Foundation; Gyllenberg Foundation (Finland); Novo Nordisk Foundation; Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation; University of Helsinki; Government Research Funds for Helsinki University Hospital; Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation (Finland); Emil Aaltonen Foundation (Finland); and China Scholarship Council.
Issue: 8
Start Page: 1262
End Page: 1277