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Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management / Elinor Winrow

Swansea University Author: Elinor Winrow

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DOI (Published version): 10.23889/SUthesis.60765

Abstract

This research project focused on understanding the way in which faecal sludge dries on a material level. Faecal sludge pose’s huge health and environmental problems within the developing world, but by implementing faecal sludge management systems these issues can be reduced. This research is of grea...

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Published: Swansea 2022
Institution: Swansea University
Degree level: Doctoral
Degree name: EngD
Supervisor: Mabbett, Ian
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa60765
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first_indexed 2022-08-05T15:11:55Z
last_indexed 2023-01-13T19:21:08Z
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spelling 2022-08-05T16:24:27.5895533 v2 60765 2022-08-05 Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management 14f4ae796c254f426640d6136fd39ad9 Elinor Winrow Elinor Winrow true false 2022-08-05 MTLS This research project focused on understanding the way in which faecal sludge dries on a material level. Faecal sludge pose’s huge health and environmental problems within the developing world, but by implementing faecal sludge management systems these issues can be reduced. This research is of great importance as understanding the way in which faecal sludge dries can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of new and developed drying techniques. In turn this will mitigate many of the health and environmental issues facing the developing world. The aim of this project was to investigate how faecal sludge dries under differing conditions to help predict how efficiently newly developed drying technologies will work. Faecal sludge from ventilated pit latrines (VIP), urine diversion toilets (UDDT) and anaerobic baffled reactors (ABR) along with fresh faeces (HF) were analysed using both UV-Vis-NIR and STA-FTIR analysis to identify their drying properties. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy was used to analyse the reflectance and transmission properties of faecal sludge, identifying how it interacts with the radiation produced from the whole solar spectrum. This allowed the depth of penetration to be identified along with the absorbance potential of each type of faecal sludge. When analysing the whole solar spectrum VIP, UDDT, ABR and HF had a total absorbance 87%, 86%, 85% and 65% respectively, indicating that solar thermal drying was an excellent drying process. To understand the drying trends and energy demand needed to remove moisture from faecal sludge, STA-FTIR was carried out. This demonstrated the variability found within the moisture retention properties of faecal sludge, along with the importance of fully understanding the drying system used to ensure that no energy is wasted within the process. pH and nutrient content were found to play an important role within a faecal sludge ability to dry, meaning that UDDT sludge reached the lowest final moisture content of ~23% due to the removal of nutrients within the urine diversion process, while VIP sludge dried to the lowest moisture content (~8%) due to it having a neutral pH. E-Thesis Swansea Faecal Sludge, UV-Vis-NIR, STA, Drying 24 6 2022 2022-06-24 10.23889/SUthesis.60765 ORCiD identifier: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0859-8564 COLLEGE NANME Materials Science and Engineering COLLEGE CODE MTLS Swansea University Mabbett, Ian Doctoral EngD M2A, The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation 2022-08-05T16:24:27.5895533 2022-08-05T16:04:51.2451343 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Materials Science and Engineering Elinor Winrow 1 60765__24884__b865f0f11fe748d0b01b7dcf2ebe4d01.pdf Winrow_Elinor_J_EngD_Thesis_Final_Redacted_Signature.pdf 2022-08-05T16:17:01.0346356 Output 7359523 application/pdf E-Thesis – open access true Copyright: The author, Elinor J. Winrow, 2022. true eng
title Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management
spellingShingle Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management
Elinor Winrow
title_short Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management
title_full Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management
title_fullStr Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management
title_full_unstemmed Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management
title_sort Solar Thermal Dewatering in Faecal Sludge Management
author_id_str_mv 14f4ae796c254f426640d6136fd39ad9
author_id_fullname_str_mv 14f4ae796c254f426640d6136fd39ad9_***_Elinor Winrow
author Elinor Winrow
author2 Elinor Winrow
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publishDate 2022
institution Swansea University
doi_str_mv 10.23889/SUthesis.60765
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
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hierarchy_top_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Materials Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Materials Science and Engineering
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description This research project focused on understanding the way in which faecal sludge dries on a material level. Faecal sludge pose’s huge health and environmental problems within the developing world, but by implementing faecal sludge management systems these issues can be reduced. This research is of great importance as understanding the way in which faecal sludge dries can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of new and developed drying techniques. In turn this will mitigate many of the health and environmental issues facing the developing world. The aim of this project was to investigate how faecal sludge dries under differing conditions to help predict how efficiently newly developed drying technologies will work. Faecal sludge from ventilated pit latrines (VIP), urine diversion toilets (UDDT) and anaerobic baffled reactors (ABR) along with fresh faeces (HF) were analysed using both UV-Vis-NIR and STA-FTIR analysis to identify their drying properties. UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy was used to analyse the reflectance and transmission properties of faecal sludge, identifying how it interacts with the radiation produced from the whole solar spectrum. This allowed the depth of penetration to be identified along with the absorbance potential of each type of faecal sludge. When analysing the whole solar spectrum VIP, UDDT, ABR and HF had a total absorbance 87%, 86%, 85% and 65% respectively, indicating that solar thermal drying was an excellent drying process. To understand the drying trends and energy demand needed to remove moisture from faecal sludge, STA-FTIR was carried out. This demonstrated the variability found within the moisture retention properties of faecal sludge, along with the importance of fully understanding the drying system used to ensure that no energy is wasted within the process. pH and nutrient content were found to play an important role within a faecal sludge ability to dry, meaning that UDDT sludge reached the lowest final moisture content of ~23% due to the removal of nutrients within the urine diversion process, while VIP sludge dried to the lowest moisture content (~8%) due to it having a neutral pH.
published_date 2022-06-24T04:19:09Z
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score 11.011735