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Physico-chemical properties of waste derived biochar from community scale faecal sludge treatment plants
Gates Open Research, Volume: 6, Start page: 96
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© 2022 Nicholas HL et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution LicenseDownload (1.28MB)
Background: The dumping of untreated faecal sludge from non-sewered onsite sanitation facilities causes environmental pollution and exacerbates poor public health outcomes across developing nations. Long-term mechanisms to treat faecal sludge generated from these facilities are needed to resolve the...
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Background: The dumping of untreated faecal sludge from non-sewered onsite sanitation facilities causes environmental pollution and exacerbates poor public health outcomes across developing nations. Long-term mechanisms to treat faecal sludge generated from these facilities are needed to resolve the global sanitation crisis and realize the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all” by 2030. Pyrolysis of faecal sludge removes pathogens and generates biochar, which can be used as a soil enhancer.Methods: The properties of faecal sludge biochars from three full-scale treatment plants in India were determined via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD), proximate analyses, and BET surface area porosimetry.Results: Results showed that all three biochars had low specific surface area, high alkaline pH values, high ash content, and negative surface charge. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the same surface functional groups present in each biochar. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the mineral composition of each biochar differed slightly. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated a porous structure of each biochar with ash particles evident.Conclusions: Slight differences in the ash content, surface area, pH and mineral content was observed between the three biochars.
Biochar, Faecal Sludge, Fecal, Characterization, Properties, Pyrolysis, Sanitation
Faculty of Science and Engineering
The authors thank the staff of Tide Technocrats Ltd. for the
supply of biochar, Tom Dunlop (Swansea University), Mariolino
Carta (Swansea University), Gabriel Sigmund (University of
Vienna) and Maria Santiso Taboada (University of Santiago de
Compostela). XRD and SEM analysis assistance provided by
Swansea University College of Engineering AIM facility, which
is funded in part by the EPSRC (EP/M028267/1), the European
Regional Development Fund through the Welsh Government
(80708) and Ser Solar project via Welsh Government.