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Wealth and obesity in pre-adolescents and their guardians: A first step in explaining non-communicable disease-related behaviour in two areas of Nairobi City County

Sophie Ochola Orcid Logo, Noora Kanerva, Lucy Joy Wachira Orcid Logo, George E. Owino Orcid Logo, Esther L. Anono Orcid Logo, Hanna M. Walsh, Victor Okoth, Maijaliisa Erkkola Orcid Logo, Nils Swindell, Gareth Stratton Orcid Logo, Vincent Onywera, Mikael Fogelholm

PLOS Global Public Health, Volume: 3, Issue: 2, Start page: e0000331

Swansea University Authors: Nils Swindell, Gareth Stratton Orcid Logo

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Abstract

The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing in lower-middle-income coun-tries as these countries transition to unhealthy lifestyles. The transition is mostly predomi-nant in urban areas. We assessed the association between wealth and obesity in two sub-counties in Nairobi City County,...

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Published in: PLOS Global Public Health
ISSN: 2767-3375
Published: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa62554
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Abstract: The prevalence of non-communicable diseases is increasing in lower-middle-income coun-tries as these countries transition to unhealthy lifestyles. The transition is mostly predomi-nant in urban areas. We assessed the association between wealth and obesity in two sub-counties in Nairobi City County, Kenya, in the context of family and poverty. This cross-sec-tional study was conducted among of 9–14 years old pre-adolescents and their guardiansliving in low- (Embakasi) and middle-income (Langata) sub-counties. The sociodemo-graphic characteristics were collected using a validated questionnaire. Weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist circumference were measured using standardapproved protocols. Socioeconomic characteristics of the residential sites were accessedusing Wealth Index, created by using Principal Component Analysis. Statistical analyseswere done by analysis of variance (continuous variables, comparison of areas) and withlogistic and linear regression models.A total of 149 households, response rate of 93%, par-ticipated, 72 from Embakasi and 77 from Langata. Most of the participants residing in Emba-kasi belonged to the lower income and education groups whereas participants residing inLangata belonged to the higher income and education groups. About 30% of the pre-adoles-cent participants in Langata were overweight, compared to 6% in Embakasi (p<0.001). Incontrast, the prevalence of adults (mostly mothers) with overweight and obesity was high(65%) in both study areas. Wealth (β= 0.01; SE 0.0; p = 0.003) and income (β= 0.29; SE0.11; p = 0.009) predicted higher BMI z-score in pre-adolescents. In, pre-adolescent over-weight was already highly prevalent in the middle-income area, while the proportion ofwomen with overweight/obesity was high in the low-income area. These results suggest thata lifestyle promoting obesity is high regardless of socioeconomic status and wealth in Kenya. This provides a strong justification for promoting healthy lifestyles across all socio-economic classes.
Keywords: Obesity, Overweight , Socioeconomic aspects of health, Body Mass Index, Anthropometry, Adults, Human Families, Urban areas
College: Faculty of Science and Engineering
Funders: This study was part of a collaborative project“The Kenya-Finland Education and Research Alliance (KENFIN-EDURA)”(state grant HEL7M0453-82, sum 527,000 EUR awarded to MF. and VO) funded by the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs through The Higher Education Institutions Institutional Cooperation Instrument.
Issue: 2
Start Page: e0000331