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Roadmap for a sustainable circular economy in lithium-ion and future battery technologies

Gavin D J Harper Orcid Logo, Emma Kendrick Orcid Logo, Paul A Anderson Orcid Logo, Wojciech Mrozik, Paul Christensen Orcid Logo, Simon Lambert, David Greenwood Orcid Logo, Prodip K Das Orcid Logo, Mohamed Ahmeid, Zoran Milojevic, Wenjia Du Orcid Logo, Dan J L Brett Orcid Logo, Paul R Shearing Orcid Logo, Alireza Rastegarpanah, Rustam Stolkin, Roberto Sommerville, Anton Zorin, Jessica L Durham, Andrew P Abbott Orcid Logo, Dana Thompson, Nigel D Browning, B Layla Mehdi, Mounib Bahri, Felipe Schanider-Tontini, D Nicholls, Christin Stallmeister, Bernd Friedrich Orcid Logo, Marcus Sommerfeld Orcid Logo, Laura L Driscoll, Abbey Jarvis Orcid Logo, Emily C Giles Orcid Logo, Peter R Slater Orcid Logo, Virginia Echavarri-Bravo Orcid Logo, Giovanni Maddalena Orcid Logo, Louise E Horsfall, Linda Gaines, Qiang Dai, Shiva J Jethwa, Albert L Lipson, Gary A Leeke, Thomas Cowell, Joseph Gresle Farthing, Greta Mariani, Amy Smith, Zubera Iqbal, Rabeeh Golmohammadzadeh, Luke Sweeney, Vannessa Goodship, Zheng Li, Jacqueline Edge Orcid Logo, Laura Lander, Viet Tien Nguyen, Robert J R Elliot, Oliver Heidrich, Margaret Slattery, Daniel Reed, Jyoti Ahuja, Aleksandra Cavoski, Robert Lee, Elizabeth Driscoll, Jenny Baker Orcid Logo, Peter Littlewood, Iain Styles, Sampriti Mahanty, Frank Boons

Journal of Physics: Energy, Volume: 5, Issue: 2, Start page: 021501

Swansea University Author: Jenny Baker Orcid Logo

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Abstract

The market dynamics, and their impact on a future circular economy for lithium-ion batteries (LIB), are presented in this roadmap, with safety as an integral consideration throughout the life cycle. At the point of end-of-life (EOL), there is a range of potential options—remanufacturing, reuse and r...

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Published in: Journal of Physics: Energy
ISSN: 2515-7655
Published: IOP Publishing 2023
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa62794
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Abstract: The market dynamics, and their impact on a future circular economy for lithium-ion batteries (LIB), are presented in this roadmap, with safety as an integral consideration throughout the life cycle. At the point of end-of-life (EOL), there is a range of potential options—remanufacturing, reuse and recycling. Diagnostics play a significant role in evaluating the state-of-health and condition of batteries, and improvements to diagnostic techniques are evaluated. At present, manual disassembly dominates EOL disposal, however, given the volumes of future batteries that are to be anticipated, automated approaches to the dismantling of EOL battery packs will be key. The first stage in recycling after the removal of the cells is the initial cell-breaking or opening step. Approaches to this are reviewed, contrasting shredding and cell disassembly as two alternative approaches. Design for recycling is one approach that could assist in easier disassembly of cells, and new approaches to cell design that could enable the circular economy of LIBs are reviewed. After disassembly, subsequent separation of the black mass is performed before further concentration of components. There are a plethora of alternative approaches for recovering materials; this roadmap sets out the future directions for a range of approaches including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, short-loop, direct, and the biological recovery of LIB materials. Furthermore, anode, lithium, electrolyte, binder and plastics recovery are considered in order to maximise the proportion of materials recovered, minimise waste and point the way towards zero-waste recycling. The life-cycle implications of a circular economy are discussed considering the overall system of LIB recycling, and also directly investigating the different recycling methods. The legal and regulatory perspectives are also considered. Finally, with a view to the future, approaches for next-generation battery chemistries and recycling are evaluated, identifying gaps for research. This review takes the form of a series of short reviews, with each section written independently by a diverse international authorship of experts on the topic. Collectively, these reviews form a comprehensive picture of the current state of the art in LIB recycling, and how these technologies are expected to develop in the future.
College: Faculty of Science and Engineering
Funders: UKRI Interdisciplinary Circular Economy Centre for Technology Metals (Met4Tech) Grant
Issue: 2
Start Page: 021501