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Mixing, Fast and Slow: Assessing the Efficiency of Electronically Conductive Networks in Hard Carbon Anodes
Coatings, Volume: 13, Issue: 4, Start page: 689
Swansea University Authors: Anne Sawhney , Jenny Baker
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Copyright: © 2023 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 4.0 licenseDownload (6.24MB)
DOI (Published version): 10.3390/coatings13040689
This work aimed to answer fundamental questions about the optimal processing and formulation of hard carbon electrodes typical of those anticipated in commercial sodium-ion cells. Procedurally simple tests were proposed to compare the effects of slurry mixing energy and conductive additives on the m...
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This work aimed to answer fundamental questions about the optimal processing and formulation of hard carbon electrodes typical of those anticipated in commercial sodium-ion cells. Procedurally simple tests were proposed to compare the effects of slurry mixing energy and conductive additives on the morphology of and conductive networks in electrodes made with hard carbons from two different manufacturers. Long-range and short-range electronic conductivity was quantified with high repeatability for samples of each hard carbon electrode produced on different days. The most significant changes induced by mixing energy were observed in the electrodes produced without conductive additives, which was found to relate to post-processing particle size. Hard carbon from one source was pulverized by high energy mixing, replacing the electronic effect of conductive additives while increasing pore tortuosity and impedance. These findings recommend evaluating the dry electrode through-resistance as a complement to quantifying pre-cycling impedance to validate mixing protocol and the application of conductive additives in hard carbon electrodes. These procedures can also serve as reliable low-cost methods for quality control at early stages of sodium-ion anode manufacturing.
Na-ion; contact resistance; impedance modulus; electrode microporosity
Faculty of Science and Engineering
EP/S03711X/1 and SPECIFIC Innovation and Knowledge Centre (grant numbers EP/N020863/1 , EP/P030831/1