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Retrieval-induced forgetting and judgements in impression formation. / Marcelle, Fernandes

Swansea University Author: Marcelle, Fernandes

Abstract

Selective retrieval impairs retrieval of related unwanted information, an effect known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, Bjork & Bjork, 1994). Previous research has indicated that person memory is subject to retrieval-induced forgetting while metacognitive judgements of likeability...

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Published: 2011
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa42462
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Abstract: Selective retrieval impairs retrieval of related unwanted information, an effect known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, Bjork & Bjork, 1994). Previous research has indicated that person memory is subject to retrieval-induced forgetting while metacognitive judgements of likeability are not influenced by the effect (Storm, Bjork & Bjork, 2005). This finding is consistent with research on 'on-line' judgements, which suggest that there is little or no relationship between memory content and impression judgements (Hastie & Park, 1986). The present thesis presents five experiments that further explore the relationship between availability of information in memory, via retrieval-induced forgetting of valenced personality traits, and honesty judgement ratings. In Experiment 1 retrieval-induced forgetting was found for positive and negative traits. In Experiments 2A and 2B retrieval-induced forgetting was found for negative traits relating to female and male targets rated as honest or dishonest. Experiment 3 demonstrated no retrieval-induced forgetting effects for positive or negative traits associated with perceived honest and dishonest target professionals. In Experiment 4, an independent cue method was used to measure the presence of inhibitory processes in the retrieval practice paradigm. No retrieval-induced forgetting effect was found indicating the presence of non-inhibitory processes. In Experiments 5A-5D, participants first studied neutral and positive (Experiments 5A and 5C), and neutral and negative (Experiments 5B and 5D), traits about a target. A behavioural task was administered either prior to the final recall phase (Experiment 5A and 5B) or after the recall phase (Experiments 5C and 5D). Although all four experiments demonstrated significant retrieval-induced forgetting of positive and negative trait information on the recall task, there was a retrieval-induced forgetting effect on the behavioural task when it was administered before the recall phase and a rebound effect on the behavioural task when it was administered after the recall phase. Results from the present thesis also demonstrate that while overall findings suggest that retrieval-induced forgetting of valenced information does occur, it does not significantly influence the affective impression of that person. These results are discussed in terms of the literature on metacognitive judgements and the relationship between memory and social judgements.
Keywords: Cognitive psychology.
College: College of Human and Health Sciences