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Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project / Nils Joseph Swindell
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DOI (Published version): 10.23889/Suthesis.43702
Interventions are needed to stem the rise of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Physicalactivity (PA) is integral to lifestyle interventions, however, a paucity of researchapplying objective measures of PA exists in populations at risk of diabetes.Insight into changing PA and dietary behaviours is require...
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Interventions are needed to stem the rise of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Physicalactivity (PA) is integral to lifestyle interventions, however, a paucity of researchapplying objective measures of PA exists in populations at risk of diabetes.Insight into changing PA and dietary behaviours is required to develop effectiveinterventions. The aim of this thesis was to capture an insight into high-riskbehaviours and behaviour change in pre-diabetic adults, and assess the feasibilityof running an intervention in overweight and obese children.Study 1 investigated the associations between objectively measured PA andcardio-metabolic risk factors in pre-diabetic adults from 8 countries. Resultsindicated that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negativelyassociated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, associations betweentotal PA and all risk factors were at least as strong as than MVPA.Study 2 examined the psychosocial correlates of objectively measured PA.Results showed that habit-strength and exercise intentions were negatively andpositively associated with MVPA respectively. Two-way interactions betweenpeer support and inactivity temptations and between age and social support,suggested that social support was of greater importance in older participants andin the presence of inactivity temptations. Associations between PA self-efficacyand goal adjustment were country specific.Study 3 investigated associations between body fat% and lifestyle behaviours in15,977 children aged 9-11yrs. Multilevel-models revealed body fat% wasnegatively associated with active transport to school, full fat milk and sweetenedbeverage consumption. Later bed time was positively associated with bodyfat%. No change was found in associations over a 10-year period.Study 4 used mixed methods case studies combining participant perceptions ofthe behaviour change process with objective outcome measures to assess thefeasibility of running an intervention in children. Three of the four cases showedimprovements in dietary and PA behaviour and reductions in BMI z-score,HOMA-IR and HbA1c. Semi-structured interviews indicated that behaviouralchanges occurred despite not always being detected by objective measures,possibly due to compensation effects or seasonal changes. Furthermore, goalsetting was considered useful but planning goals waned throughout the study.Compliance with self-monitoring techniques was low and largely reliant onparents.
Type 2 Diabetes, Pre-diabetes, obesity, prevention, physical activity, accelerometer, PREVIEW
College of Engineering