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Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project / Nils Joseph Swindell

DOI (Published version): 10.23889/Suthesis.43702

Abstract

Interventions are needed to stem the rise of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Physicalactivity (PA) is integral to lifestyle interventions, however, a paucity of researchapplying objective measures of PA exists in populations at risk of diabetes.Insight into changing PA and dietary behaviours is require...

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Published: 2018
Institution: Swansea University
Degree level: Doctoral
Degree name: Ph.D
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa43702
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spelling 2018-09-06T10:02:02.2864336 v2 43702 2018-09-06 Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project 2018-09-06 Interventions are needed to stem the rise of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Physicalactivity (PA) is integral to lifestyle interventions, however, a paucity of researchapplying objective measures of PA exists in populations at risk of diabetes.Insight into changing PA and dietary behaviours is required to develop effectiveinterventions. The aim of this thesis was to capture an insight into high-riskbehaviours and behaviour change in pre-diabetic adults, and assess the feasibilityof running an intervention in overweight and obese children.Study 1 investigated the associations between objectively measured PA andcardio-metabolic risk factors in pre-diabetic adults from 8 countries. Resultsindicated that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negativelyassociated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, associations betweentotal PA and all risk factors were at least as strong as than MVPA.Study 2 examined the psychosocial correlates of objectively measured PA.Results showed that habit-strength and exercise intentions were negatively andpositively associated with MVPA respectively. Two-way interactions betweenpeer support and inactivity temptations and between age and social support,suggested that social support was of greater importance in older participants andin the presence of inactivity temptations. Associations between PA self-efficacyand goal adjustment were country specific.Study 3 investigated associations between body fat% and lifestyle behaviours in15,977 children aged 9-11yrs. Multilevel-models revealed body fat% wasnegatively associated with active transport to school, full fat milk and sweetenedbeverage consumption. Later bed time was positively associated with bodyfat%. No change was found in associations over a 10-year period.Study 4 used mixed methods case studies combining participant perceptions ofthe behaviour change process with objective outcome measures to assess thefeasibility of running an intervention in children. Three of the four cases showedimprovements in dietary and PA behaviour and reductions in BMI z-score,HOMA-IR and HbA1c. Semi-structured interviews indicated that behaviouralchanges occurred despite not always being detected by objective measures,possibly due to compensation effects or seasonal changes. Furthermore, goalsetting was considered useful but planning goals waned throughout the study.Compliance with self-monitoring techniques was low and largely reliant onparents. E-Thesis Type 2 Diabetes, Pre-diabetes, obesity, prevention, physical activity, accelerometer, PREVIEW 31 12 2018 2018-12-31 10.23889/Suthesis.43702 COLLEGE NANME COLLEGE CODE Swansea University Doctoral Ph.D 2018-09-06T10:02:02.2864336 2018-09-06T09:36:50.3649691 College of Engineering Sports Science Nils Joseph Swindell 1 0043702-06092018095656.pdf Swindell_Nils-__PhD_thesis_v1.1.pdf 2018-09-06T09:56:56.8370000 Output 15740739 application/pdf Redacted version - open access true 2018-09-06T00:00:00.0000000 false
title Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project
spellingShingle Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project
,
title_short Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project
title_full Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project
title_fullStr Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project
title_full_unstemmed Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project
title_sort Physical activity and lifestyle behaviours in obesity and the prevention of type 2 diabetes: The PREVIEW Project
author ,
author2 Nils Joseph Swindell
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publishDate 2018
institution Swansea University
doi_str_mv 10.23889/Suthesis.43702
college_str College of Engineering
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hierarchy_top_id collegeofengineering
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hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Sports Science{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Sports Science
document_store_str 1
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description Interventions are needed to stem the rise of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Physicalactivity (PA) is integral to lifestyle interventions, however, a paucity of researchapplying objective measures of PA exists in populations at risk of diabetes.Insight into changing PA and dietary behaviours is required to develop effectiveinterventions. The aim of this thesis was to capture an insight into high-riskbehaviours and behaviour change in pre-diabetic adults, and assess the feasibilityof running an intervention in overweight and obese children.Study 1 investigated the associations between objectively measured PA andcardio-metabolic risk factors in pre-diabetic adults from 8 countries. Resultsindicated that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negativelyassociated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. However, associations betweentotal PA and all risk factors were at least as strong as than MVPA.Study 2 examined the psychosocial correlates of objectively measured PA.Results showed that habit-strength and exercise intentions were negatively andpositively associated with MVPA respectively. Two-way interactions betweenpeer support and inactivity temptations and between age and social support,suggested that social support was of greater importance in older participants andin the presence of inactivity temptations. Associations between PA self-efficacyand goal adjustment were country specific.Study 3 investigated associations between body fat% and lifestyle behaviours in15,977 children aged 9-11yrs. Multilevel-models revealed body fat% wasnegatively associated with active transport to school, full fat milk and sweetenedbeverage consumption. Later bed time was positively associated with bodyfat%. No change was found in associations over a 10-year period.Study 4 used mixed methods case studies combining participant perceptions ofthe behaviour change process with objective outcome measures to assess thefeasibility of running an intervention in children. Three of the four cases showedimprovements in dietary and PA behaviour and reductions in BMI z-score,HOMA-IR and HbA1c. Semi-structured interviews indicated that behaviouralchanges occurred despite not always being detected by objective measures,possibly due to compensation effects or seasonal changes. Furthermore, goalsetting was considered useful but planning goals waned throughout the study.Compliance with self-monitoring techniques was low and largely reliant onparents.
published_date 2018-12-31T04:11:13Z
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