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Could Age, Sex and Physical Fitness Affect Blood Glucose Responses to Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes? / Jane E. Yardley; Nicole K. Brockman; Richard M. Bracken
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume: 9
Swansea University Author: Bracken, Richard
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Closed-loop systems for patients with type 1 diabetes are progressing rapidly. Despite these advances, current systems may struggle in dealing with the acute stress of exercise. Algorithms to predict exercise-induced blood glucose changes in current systems are mostly derived from data involving rel...
|Published in:||Frontiers in Endocrinology|
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Closed-loop systems for patients with type 1 diabetes are progressing rapidly. Despite these advances, current systems may struggle in dealing with the acute stress of exercise. Algorithms to predict exercise-induced blood glucose changes in current systems are mostly derived from data involving relatively young, fit males. Little is known about the magnitude of confounding variables such as sex, age, and fitness level—underlying, uncontrollable factors that might influence blood glucose control during exercise. Sex-related differences in hormonal responses to physical exercise exist in studies involving individuals without diabetes, and result in altered fuel metabolism during exercise. Increasing age is associated with attenuated catecholamine responses and lower carbohydrate oxidation during activity. Furthermore, higher fitness levels can alter hormonal and fuel selection responses to exercise. Compounding the limited research on these factors in the metabolic response to exercise in type 1 diabetes is a limited understanding of how these variables affect blood glucose levels during different types, timing and intensities of activity in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Thus, there is currently insufficient information to model a closed-loop system that can predict them accurately and consistently prevent hypoglycemia. Further, studies involving both sexes, along with a range of ages and fitness levels, are needed to create a closed-loop system that will be more precise in regulating blood glucose during exercise in a wide variety of individuals with T1D.
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