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Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor / Trystan, Watson; Matthew, Carnie; Jenny, Nelson

Physical Review Applied, Volume: 11, Issue: 4

Swansesa University Authors: Trystan, Watson, Matthew, Carnie, Jenny, Nelson

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Abstract

The light ideality factor determined by measuring the open-circuit voltage (V) as a function of light intensity is often used to identify the dominant recombination mechanism in solar cells. Applying this “Suns-V” technique to perovskite cells is problematic since the V evolves with time in a way th...

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Published in: Physical Review Applied
ISSN: 2331-7019
Published: American Physical Society 2019
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa49970
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Applying this &#x201C;Suns-V&#x201D; technique to perovskite cells is problematic since the V evolves with time in a way that depends on the previously applied bias (V), bias light intensity, device architecture and processing route. Here, we show that the dominant recombination mechanism in two structurally similar CH3NH3PbI3 devices containing either mesoporous Al2O3 or TiO2 layers can be identified from the signature of the transient ideality factor following application of a forward bias, V, to the device in the dark. The transient ideality factor is measured by monitoring the evolution of V as a function of time at different light intensities. The initial values of ideality found using this technique are consistent with estimates of the ideality factor obtained from measurements of photoluminescence vs light intensity and electroluminescence vs current density. Time-dependent simulations of the measurement on modeled devices, which include the effects of mobile ionic charge, reveal that this initial value can be correlated to an existing zero-dimensional model while steady-state values must be analyzed taking into account the homogeneity of carrier populations throughout the absorber layer. The analysis shows that Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination through deep traps at the charge-collection interfaces is dominant in both architectures of measured device. Using transient photovoltage measurements directly following illumination on bifacial devices, we further show that the perovskite&#x2013;electron-transport-layer interface extends throughout the mesoporous TiO2 layer, consistent with a transient ideality signature corresponding to SRH recombination in the bulk of the film. This method will be useful for identifying performance bottlenecks in alternative variants of perovskite and other mixed ionic-electronic conducting absorber-based solar cells.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Physical Review Applied</journal><volume>11</volume><journalNumber>4</journalNumber><publisher>American Physical Society</publisher><issnElectronic>2331-7019</issnElectronic><keywords>Energy research, Optoelectronics, Semiconductor Physics</keywords><publishedDay>31</publishedDay><publishedMonth>12</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2019</publishedYear><publishedDate>2019-12-31</publishedDate><doi>10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.044005</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Engineering</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>EEN</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><sponsorsfunders>UKRI, EP/N020863/1</sponsorsfunders><lastEdited>2019-04-11T12:39:30.1191990</lastEdited><Created>2019-04-11T12:32:20.7913010</Created><path><level id="1">College of Engineering</level><level id="2">Engineering</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Phil</firstname><surname>Calado</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Dan</firstname><surname>Burkitt</surname><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Jizhong</firstname><surname>Yao</surname><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Joel</firstname><surname>Troughton</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Trystan</firstname><surname>Watson</surname><orcid>0000-0002-8015-1436</orcid><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>Matt J.</firstname><surname>Carnie</surname><order>6</order></author><author><firstname>Andrew M.</firstname><surname>Telford</surname><order>7</order></author><author><firstname>Brian C.</firstname><surname>O&#x2019;Regan</surname><order>8</order></author><author><firstname>Jenny</firstname><surname>Nelson</surname><order>9</order></author><author><firstname>Piers R.F.</firstname><surname>Barnes</surname><order>10</order></author><author><firstname>Matthew</firstname><surname>Carnie</surname><orcid>0000-0002-4232-1967</orcid><order>11</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>0049970-11042019123333.pdf</filename><originalFilename>APCE061.PhysRevApplied.11.044005.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2019-04-11T12:33:33.1470000</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>1101878</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Version of Record</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><action/><embargoDate>2019-04-11T00:00:00.0000000</embargoDate><documentNotes>Distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY 4.0 Licence.</documentNotes><copyrightCorrect>true</copyrightCorrect><language>eng</language></document></documents></rfc1807>
spelling 2019-04-11T12:39:30.1191990 v2 49970 2019-04-11 Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor a210327b52472cfe8df9b8108d661457 0000-0002-8015-1436 Trystan Watson Trystan Watson true false 73b367694366a646b90bb15db32bb8c0 0000-0002-4232-1967 Matthew Carnie Matthew Carnie true false e0e41c0bb2b9cae677f7fbbf88abe590 Jenny Nelson Jenny Nelson true false 2019-04-11 EEN The light ideality factor determined by measuring the open-circuit voltage (V) as a function of light intensity is often used to identify the dominant recombination mechanism in solar cells. Applying this “Suns-V” technique to perovskite cells is problematic since the V evolves with time in a way that depends on the previously applied bias (V), bias light intensity, device architecture and processing route. Here, we show that the dominant recombination mechanism in two structurally similar CH3NH3PbI3 devices containing either mesoporous Al2O3 or TiO2 layers can be identified from the signature of the transient ideality factor following application of a forward bias, V, to the device in the dark. The transient ideality factor is measured by monitoring the evolution of V as a function of time at different light intensities. The initial values of ideality found using this technique are consistent with estimates of the ideality factor obtained from measurements of photoluminescence vs light intensity and electroluminescence vs current density. Time-dependent simulations of the measurement on modeled devices, which include the effects of mobile ionic charge, reveal that this initial value can be correlated to an existing zero-dimensional model while steady-state values must be analyzed taking into account the homogeneity of carrier populations throughout the absorber layer. The analysis shows that Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination through deep traps at the charge-collection interfaces is dominant in both architectures of measured device. Using transient photovoltage measurements directly following illumination on bifacial devices, we further show that the perovskite–electron-transport-layer interface extends throughout the mesoporous TiO2 layer, consistent with a transient ideality signature corresponding to SRH recombination in the bulk of the film. This method will be useful for identifying performance bottlenecks in alternative variants of perovskite and other mixed ionic-electronic conducting absorber-based solar cells. Journal Article Physical Review Applied 11 4 American Physical Society 2331-7019 Energy research, Optoelectronics, Semiconductor Physics 31 12 2019 2019-12-31 10.1103/PhysRevApplied.11.044005 COLLEGE NANME Engineering COLLEGE CODE EEN Swansea University UKRI, EP/N020863/1 2019-04-11T12:39:30.1191990 2019-04-11T12:32:20.7913010 College of Engineering Engineering Phil Calado 1 Dan Burkitt 2 Jizhong Yao 3 Joel Troughton 4 Trystan Watson 0000-0002-8015-1436 5 Matt J. Carnie 6 Andrew M. Telford 7 Brian C. O’Regan 8 Jenny Nelson 9 Piers R.F. Barnes 10 Matthew Carnie 0000-0002-4232-1967 11 0049970-11042019123333.pdf APCE061.PhysRevApplied.11.044005.pdf 2019-04-11T12:33:33.1470000 Output 1101878 application/pdf Version of Record true 2019-04-11T00:00:00.0000000 Distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY 4.0 Licence. true eng
title Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor
spellingShingle Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor
Trystan, Watson
Matthew, Carnie
Jenny, Nelson
title_short Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor
title_full Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor
title_fullStr Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor
title_full_unstemmed Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor
title_sort Identifying Dominant Recombination Mechanisms in Perovskite Solar Cells by Measuring the Transient Ideality Factor
author_id_str_mv a210327b52472cfe8df9b8108d661457
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author_id_fullname_str_mv a210327b52472cfe8df9b8108d661457_***_Trystan, Watson
73b367694366a646b90bb15db32bb8c0_***_Matthew, Carnie
e0e41c0bb2b9cae677f7fbbf88abe590_***_Jenny, Nelson
author Trystan, Watson
Matthew, Carnie
Jenny, Nelson
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description The light ideality factor determined by measuring the open-circuit voltage (V) as a function of light intensity is often used to identify the dominant recombination mechanism in solar cells. Applying this “Suns-V” technique to perovskite cells is problematic since the V evolves with time in a way that depends on the previously applied bias (V), bias light intensity, device architecture and processing route. Here, we show that the dominant recombination mechanism in two structurally similar CH3NH3PbI3 devices containing either mesoporous Al2O3 or TiO2 layers can be identified from the signature of the transient ideality factor following application of a forward bias, V, to the device in the dark. The transient ideality factor is measured by monitoring the evolution of V as a function of time at different light intensities. The initial values of ideality found using this technique are consistent with estimates of the ideality factor obtained from measurements of photoluminescence vs light intensity and electroluminescence vs current density. Time-dependent simulations of the measurement on modeled devices, which include the effects of mobile ionic charge, reveal that this initial value can be correlated to an existing zero-dimensional model while steady-state values must be analyzed taking into account the homogeneity of carrier populations throughout the absorber layer. The analysis shows that Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination through deep traps at the charge-collection interfaces is dominant in both architectures of measured device. Using transient photovoltage measurements directly following illumination on bifacial devices, we further show that the perovskite–electron-transport-layer interface extends throughout the mesoporous TiO2 layer, consistent with a transient ideality signature corresponding to SRH recombination in the bulk of the film. This method will be useful for identifying performance bottlenecks in alternative variants of perovskite and other mixed ionic-electronic conducting absorber-based solar cells.
published_date 2019-12-31T20:02:58Z
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