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Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications

Andrew Claypole, Tim Claypole Orcid Logo

Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Proceedings of the 46th International Research Conference of iarigai, Volume: XLVI(VI), Pages: 156 - 164

Swansea University Authors: Andrew Claypole, Tim Claypole Orcid Logo

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Abstract

The inks used to create printed electronics for wearable technology, especially if it is to be attached directly to garments, must be able to bend and stretch to conform to the wearer’s body and to accommodate the movement of the wearer. The performance of a conductive ink consisting of a thermoplas...

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Published in: Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Proceedings of the 46th International Research Conference of iarigai
ISBN: 978-3-948039-01-1
ISSN: 2409-4021
Published: 2019
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa53315
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fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2020-07-08T16:40:32.5067943</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>53315</id><entry>2020-01-20</entry><title>Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications</title><swanseaauthors><author><sid>f67f965e32151fcd26f52f9db57d7baa</sid><firstname>Andrew</firstname><surname>Claypole</surname><name>Andrew Claypole</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author><author><sid>7735385522f1e68a8775b4f709e91d55</sid><ORCID>0000-0003-1393-9634</ORCID><firstname>Tim</firstname><surname>Claypole</surname><name>Tim Claypole</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author></swanseaauthors><date>2020-01-20</date><deptcode>MECH</deptcode><abstract>The inks used to create printed electronics for wearable technology, especially if it is to be attached directly to garments, must be able to bend and stretch to conform to the wearer&#x2019;s body and to accommodate the movement of the wearer. The performance of a conductive ink consisting of a thermoplastic polyurethane and a blend of functionalised Graphite Nano Platelets with Carbon Black developed for application to high stretch garments has been fully characterised from its viscoelastic properties as an ink through to the impact of stretching and flexing the printed ink film. The inks were subjected to full rheological testing including shear flow measurements and viscoelastic measurements using Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (SAOS). Extension tests of the printed layers were undertaken using a Hounsfield Tensile testing machine whilst the effect of this extension on the electrical resistance of the sample was simultaneously monitored. The addition of the nano carbons to the resin increases the elastic properties of the inks and has a direct impact on the printability. The electrical conductivity of the ink is unaffected by flexing without stretch. A change of &lt;5% was observed following creasing of the samples using a 300N load. Nominal strains of 10 and 100 % were selected for cyclic extension testing. Following an initial stretch cycle that increased the resistance of the ink, the ink and substrate exhibited consistent resistance change with extension. This repeatable performance would allow for predictability of ink performance in wearable applications. It also suggests the potential for use as a low resistance strain sensor. Beyond this point there is an increasing loss of conductive paths as the material permanently deforms and there is an exponential increase in resistance. The ink was pulled to maximum extension, becoming non-conductive at &gt;300% strain.</abstract><type>Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract</type><journal>Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Proceedings of the 46th International Research Conference of iarigai</journal><volume>XLVI(VI)</volume><paginationStart>156</paginationStart><paginationEnd>164</paginationEnd><publisher/><isbnElectronic>978-3-948039-01-1</isbnElectronic><issnElectronic>2409-4021</issnElectronic><keywords/><publishedDay>15</publishedDay><publishedMonth>9</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2019</publishedYear><publishedDate>2019-09-15</publishedDate><doi>10.14622/Advances_46_2019</doi><url>https://iarigai.com/publications/books/</url><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Mechanical Engineering</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>MECH</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><lastEdited>2020-07-08T16:40:32.5067943</lastEdited><Created>2020-01-20T16:05:42.1800539</Created><authors><author><firstname>Andrew</firstname><surname>Claypole</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Tim</firstname><surname>Claypole</surname><orcid>0000-0003-1393-9634</orcid><order>2</order></author></authors><documents/><OutputDurs/></rfc1807>
spelling 2020-07-08T16:40:32.5067943 v2 53315 2020-01-20 Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications f67f965e32151fcd26f52f9db57d7baa Andrew Claypole Andrew Claypole true false 7735385522f1e68a8775b4f709e91d55 0000-0003-1393-9634 Tim Claypole Tim Claypole true false 2020-01-20 MECH The inks used to create printed electronics for wearable technology, especially if it is to be attached directly to garments, must be able to bend and stretch to conform to the wearer’s body and to accommodate the movement of the wearer. The performance of a conductive ink consisting of a thermoplastic polyurethane and a blend of functionalised Graphite Nano Platelets with Carbon Black developed for application to high stretch garments has been fully characterised from its viscoelastic properties as an ink through to the impact of stretching and flexing the printed ink film. The inks were subjected to full rheological testing including shear flow measurements and viscoelastic measurements using Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (SAOS). Extension tests of the printed layers were undertaken using a Hounsfield Tensile testing machine whilst the effect of this extension on the electrical resistance of the sample was simultaneously monitored. The addition of the nano carbons to the resin increases the elastic properties of the inks and has a direct impact on the printability. The electrical conductivity of the ink is unaffected by flexing without stretch. A change of <5% was observed following creasing of the samples using a 300N load. Nominal strains of 10 and 100 % were selected for cyclic extension testing. Following an initial stretch cycle that increased the resistance of the ink, the ink and substrate exhibited consistent resistance change with extension. This repeatable performance would allow for predictability of ink performance in wearable applications. It also suggests the potential for use as a low resistance strain sensor. Beyond this point there is an increasing loss of conductive paths as the material permanently deforms and there is an exponential increase in resistance. The ink was pulled to maximum extension, becoming non-conductive at >300% strain. Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Proceedings of the 46th International Research Conference of iarigai XLVI(VI) 156 164 978-3-948039-01-1 2409-4021 15 9 2019 2019-09-15 10.14622/Advances_46_2019 https://iarigai.com/publications/books/ COLLEGE NANME Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE CODE MECH Swansea University 2020-07-08T16:40:32.5067943 2020-01-20T16:05:42.1800539 Andrew Claypole 1 Tim Claypole 0000-0003-1393-9634 2
title Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications
spellingShingle Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications
Andrew Claypole
Tim Claypole
title_short Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications
title_full Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications
title_fullStr Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications
title_full_unstemmed Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications
title_sort Flexible and stretchable inks for wearable applications
author_id_str_mv f67f965e32151fcd26f52f9db57d7baa
7735385522f1e68a8775b4f709e91d55
author_id_fullname_str_mv f67f965e32151fcd26f52f9db57d7baa_***_Andrew Claypole
7735385522f1e68a8775b4f709e91d55_***_Tim Claypole
author Andrew Claypole
Tim Claypole
author2 Andrew Claypole
Tim Claypole
format Conference Paper/Proceeding/Abstract
container_title Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Proceedings of the 46th International Research Conference of iarigai
container_volume XLVI(VI)
container_start_page 156
publishDate 2019
institution Swansea University
isbn 978-3-948039-01-1
issn 2409-4021
doi_str_mv 10.14622/Advances_46_2019
url https://iarigai.com/publications/books/
document_store_str 0
active_str 0
description The inks used to create printed electronics for wearable technology, especially if it is to be attached directly to garments, must be able to bend and stretch to conform to the wearer’s body and to accommodate the movement of the wearer. The performance of a conductive ink consisting of a thermoplastic polyurethane and a blend of functionalised Graphite Nano Platelets with Carbon Black developed for application to high stretch garments has been fully characterised from its viscoelastic properties as an ink through to the impact of stretching and flexing the printed ink film. The inks were subjected to full rheological testing including shear flow measurements and viscoelastic measurements using Small Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (SAOS). Extension tests of the printed layers were undertaken using a Hounsfield Tensile testing machine whilst the effect of this extension on the electrical resistance of the sample was simultaneously monitored. The addition of the nano carbons to the resin increases the elastic properties of the inks and has a direct impact on the printability. The electrical conductivity of the ink is unaffected by flexing without stretch. A change of <5% was observed following creasing of the samples using a 300N load. Nominal strains of 10 and 100 % were selected for cyclic extension testing. Following an initial stretch cycle that increased the resistance of the ink, the ink and substrate exhibited consistent resistance change with extension. This repeatable performance would allow for predictability of ink performance in wearable applications. It also suggests the potential for use as a low resistance strain sensor. Beyond this point there is an increasing loss of conductive paths as the material permanently deforms and there is an exponential increase in resistance. The ink was pulled to maximum extension, becoming non-conductive at >300% strain.
published_date 2019-09-15T04:03:43Z
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