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A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development

Ffion Walters, Muhammad Ali, Gregory Burwell, Sergiy Rozhko, Zari Tehrani Orcid Logo, Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi, Jonathan Evans, Hina Abbasi, Ryan Bigham, Jacob Mitchell Orcid Logo, Olga Kazakova, Anitha Devadoss Orcid Logo, Owen Guy Orcid Logo

Nanomaterials, Volume: 10, Issue: 9

Swansea University Authors: Ffion Walters , Muhammad Ali , Gregory Burwell , Zari Tehrani , Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi , Jonathan Evans , Hina Abbasi , Ryan Bigham , Jacob Mitchell , Anitha Devadoss , Owen Guy

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DOI (Published version): 10.3390/nano10091808

Abstract

Affinity biosensors based on graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) or resistor designs require the utilization of graphene’s exceptional electrical properties. Therefore, it is critical when designing these sensors, that the electrical properties of graphene are maintained throughout the functiona...

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Published in: Nanomaterials
ISSN: 2079-4991
Published: MDPI AG 2020
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa55139
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Therefore, it is critical when designing these sensors, that the electrical properties of graphene are maintained throughout the functionalization process. To that end, non-covalent functionalization may be preferred over covalent modification. Drop-cast 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) was investigated as a quick and simple method for the non-covalent amine functionalization of carbon-based surfaces such as graphene, for use in biosensor development. In this work, multiple graphene surfaces were functionalized with DAN via a drop-cast method, leading to amine moieties, available for subsequent attachment to receptor molecules. Successful modification of graphene with DAN via a drop-cast method was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and real-time resistance measurements. Successful attachment of receptor molecules also confirmed using the aforementioned techniques. Furthermore, an investigation into the effect of sequential wash steps which are required in biosensor manufacture, on the presence of the DAN layer, confirmed that the functional layer was not removed, even after multiple solvent exposures. 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spelling 2020-10-16T16:46:06.8171162 v2 55139 2020-09-07 A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development 7808dfe3fba8a2989fd755a8a9e08d0c Ffion Walters Ffion Walters true false 103ad6374ddc3a36f8d0609a8f471535 Muhammad Ali Muhammad Ali true false 49890fbfbe127d4ae94bc10dc2b24199 Gregory Burwell Gregory Burwell true false fd8e614b01086804c80fbafa6fa6aaf5 0000-0002-5069-7921 Zari Tehrani Zari Tehrani true false 974f6a7393c1f088d58aeeea07d80363 Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi true false 3a4152e0539a5ba25b3bbb9f76033cf7 Jonathan Evans Jonathan Evans true false 3877d0486fa12a2d0917fd27c74437ec Hina Abbasi Hina Abbasi true false 8a3dc9e3d77825a3e4500016e25df248 Ryan Bigham Ryan Bigham true false 522a9b94c350f5977584e0fd942facdc 0000-0003-1377-725X Jacob Mitchell Jacob Mitchell true false a01150750f1c8eccbfeebffdde3fe8a1 0000-0002-8052-1820 Anitha Devadoss Anitha Devadoss true false c7fa5949b8528e048c5b978005f66794 0000-0002-6449-4033 Owen Guy Owen Guy true false 2020-09-07 BMS Affinity biosensors based on graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) or resistor designs require the utilization of graphene’s exceptional electrical properties. Therefore, it is critical when designing these sensors, that the electrical properties of graphene are maintained throughout the functionalization process. To that end, non-covalent functionalization may be preferred over covalent modification. Drop-cast 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) was investigated as a quick and simple method for the non-covalent amine functionalization of carbon-based surfaces such as graphene, for use in biosensor development. In this work, multiple graphene surfaces were functionalized with DAN via a drop-cast method, leading to amine moieties, available for subsequent attachment to receptor molecules. Successful modification of graphene with DAN via a drop-cast method was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and real-time resistance measurements. Successful attachment of receptor molecules also confirmed using the aforementioned techniques. Furthermore, an investigation into the effect of sequential wash steps which are required in biosensor manufacture, on the presence of the DAN layer, confirmed that the functional layer was not removed, even after multiple solvent exposures. Drop-cast DAN is thus, a viable fast and robust method for the amine functionalization of graphene surfaces for use in biosensor development. Journal Article Nanomaterials 10 9 MDPI AG 2079-4991 graphene; non-covalent; biosensor; real-time; sensor; nanocomposite; π-π stacking; drop-cast; carbon-surfaces; resistor; GFET 10 9 2020 2020-09-10 10.3390/nano10091808 COLLEGE NANME Biomedical Sciences COLLEGE CODE BMS Swansea University UKRI, EP/M006301/1 2020-10-16T16:46:06.8171162 2020-09-07T16:47:43.8464695 College of Engineering Engineering Ffion Walters 1 Muhammad Ali 2 Gregory Burwell 3 Sergiy Rozhko 4 Zari Tehrani 0000-0002-5069-7921 5 Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi 6 Jonathan Evans 7 Hina Abbasi 8 Ryan Bigham 9 Jacob Mitchell 0000-0003-1377-725X 10 Olga Kazakova 11 Anitha Devadoss 0000-0002-8052-1820 12 Owen Guy 0000-0002-6449-4033 13 55139__18268__cf0f528f2003491f8e8734238526a58c.pdf 55139.pdf 2020-09-28T15:47:12.6040268 Output 2518639 application/pdf Version of Record true Released under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY). true English http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development
spellingShingle A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development
Ffion, Walters
Muhammad, Ali
Gregory, Burwell
Zari, Tehrani
Ehsaneh, Daghigh Ahmadi
Jonathan, Evans
Hina, Abbasi
Ryan, Bigham
Jacob, Mitchell
Anitha, Devadoss
Owen, Guy
title_short A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development
title_full A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development
title_fullStr A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development
title_full_unstemmed A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development
title_sort A Facile Method for the Non-Covalent Amine Functionalization of Carbon-Based Surfaces for Use in Biosensor Development
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author_id_fullname_str_mv 7808dfe3fba8a2989fd755a8a9e08d0c_***_Ffion, Walters
103ad6374ddc3a36f8d0609a8f471535_***_Muhammad, Ali
49890fbfbe127d4ae94bc10dc2b24199_***_Gregory, Burwell
fd8e614b01086804c80fbafa6fa6aaf5_***_Zari, Tehrani
974f6a7393c1f088d58aeeea07d80363_***_Ehsaneh, Daghigh Ahmadi
3a4152e0539a5ba25b3bbb9f76033cf7_***_Jonathan, Evans
3877d0486fa12a2d0917fd27c74437ec_***_Hina, Abbasi
8a3dc9e3d77825a3e4500016e25df248_***_Ryan, Bigham
522a9b94c350f5977584e0fd942facdc_***_Jacob, Mitchell
a01150750f1c8eccbfeebffdde3fe8a1_***_Anitha, Devadoss
c7fa5949b8528e048c5b978005f66794_***_Owen, Guy
author Ffion, Walters
Muhammad, Ali
Gregory, Burwell
Zari, Tehrani
Ehsaneh, Daghigh Ahmadi
Jonathan, Evans
Hina, Abbasi
Ryan, Bigham
Jacob, Mitchell
Anitha, Devadoss
Owen, Guy
author2 Ffion Walters
Muhammad Ali
Gregory Burwell
Sergiy Rozhko
Zari Tehrani
Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi
Jonathan Evans
Hina Abbasi
Ryan Bigham
Jacob Mitchell
Olga Kazakova
Anitha Devadoss
Owen Guy
format Journal article
container_title Nanomaterials
container_volume 10
container_issue 9
publishDate 2020
institution Swansea University
issn 2079-4991
doi_str_mv 10.3390/nano10091808
publisher MDPI AG
college_str College of Engineering
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hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Engineering{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Engineering
document_store_str 1
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description Affinity biosensors based on graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) or resistor designs require the utilization of graphene’s exceptional electrical properties. Therefore, it is critical when designing these sensors, that the electrical properties of graphene are maintained throughout the functionalization process. To that end, non-covalent functionalization may be preferred over covalent modification. Drop-cast 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) was investigated as a quick and simple method for the non-covalent amine functionalization of carbon-based surfaces such as graphene, for use in biosensor development. In this work, multiple graphene surfaces were functionalized with DAN via a drop-cast method, leading to amine moieties, available for subsequent attachment to receptor molecules. Successful modification of graphene with DAN via a drop-cast method was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and real-time resistance measurements. Successful attachment of receptor molecules also confirmed using the aforementioned techniques. Furthermore, an investigation into the effect of sequential wash steps which are required in biosensor manufacture, on the presence of the DAN layer, confirmed that the functional layer was not removed, even after multiple solvent exposures. Drop-cast DAN is thus, a viable fast and robust method for the amine functionalization of graphene surfaces for use in biosensor development.
published_date 2020-09-10T04:20:27Z
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