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Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance

Zari Tehrani Orcid Logo, Hina Abbasi, Anitha Devadoss Orcid Logo, Jonathan Evans, Owen Guy Orcid Logo

Nanomaterials, Volume: 11, Issue: 2, Start page: 416

Swansea University Authors: Zari Tehrani Orcid Logo, Hina Abbasi, Anitha Devadoss Orcid Logo, Jonathan Evans, Owen Guy Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.3390/nano11020416

Abstract

Electrochemical biosensors using carbon-based electrodes are being widely developed for the detection of a range of different diseases. Since their sensitivity depends on the surface coverage of bioreceptor moieties, it necessarily depends on the surface coverage of amine precursors. Electrochemical...

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Published in: Nanomaterials
ISSN: 2079-4991
Published: MDPI AG 2021
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Since their sensitivity depends on the surface coverage of bioreceptor moieties, it necessarily depends on the surface coverage of amine precursors. Electrochemical techniques, using ferrocene carboxylic acid as a rapid and cheap assay, were used to assess the surface coverage of amino-phenyl groups attached to the carbon electrode. While the number of electrons transferred in the first step of diazotisation indicated a surface coverage of 8.02 &#xB1; 0.2 &#xD7; l0&#x2212;10 (mol/cm2), and those transferred in the second step, a reduction of nitrophenyl to amino-phenyl, indicated an amine surface coverage of 4&#x2013;5 &#xD7; l0&#x2212;10 (mol/cm2), the number of electrons transferred during attachment of the amine coupling assay compound, ferrocene carboxylic acid, indicated a much lower available amine coverage of only 2.2 &#xD7; l0&#x2212;11 (mol/cm2). Furthermore, the available amine coverage was critically dependent upon the number of cyclic voltammetry cycles used in the reduction, and thus the procedures used in this step influenced the sensitivity of any subsequent sensor. Amine coupling of a carboxyl terminated anti-beta amyloid antibody specific to A&#x3B2;(1-42) peptide, a potential marker for Alzheimer&#x2019;s disease, followed the same pattern of coverage as that observed with ferrocene carboxylic acid, and at optimum amine coverage, the sensitivity of the differential pulse voltammetry sensor was in the range 0&#x2013;200 ng/mL with the slope of 5.07 &#xB5;A/ng.mL&#x2212;1 and R2 = 0.98.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Nanomaterials</journal><volume>11</volume><journalNumber>2</journalNumber><paginationStart>416</paginationStart><paginationEnd/><publisher>MDPI AG</publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint/><issnElectronic>2079-4991</issnElectronic><keywords>4-nitrobenzene diazonium; functionalisation; electrochemical; surface coverage; amyloid-&#x3B2; peptide</keywords><publishedDay>6</publishedDay><publishedMonth>2</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2021</publishedYear><publishedDate>2021-02-06</publishedDate><doi>10.3390/nano11020416</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Chemical Engineering</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>CHEG</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><funders>UKRI, EP/M006301/1</funders><lastEdited>2021-03-04T18:40:40.0252802</lastEdited><Created>2021-02-02T12:16:29.0268330</Created><path><level id="1">Faculty of Science and Engineering</level><level id="2">School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Chemistry</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Zari</firstname><surname>Tehrani</surname><orcid>0000-0002-5069-7921</orcid><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Hina</firstname><surname>Abbasi</surname><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Anitha</firstname><surname>Devadoss</surname><orcid>0000-0002-8052-1820</orcid><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Jonathan</firstname><surname>Evans</surname><orcid/><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Owen</firstname><surname>Guy</surname><orcid>0000-0002-6449-4033</orcid><order>5</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>56167__19311__14c4f92095344f53a0ada79275a58ec7.pdf</filename><originalFilename>56167.VOR.nanomaterials-11-00416.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2021-02-16T13:02:12.7374970</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>4903581</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Version of Record</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><documentNotes>Copyright: the Authors. 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spelling 2021-03-04T18:40:40.0252802 v2 56167 2021-02-02 Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance fd8e614b01086804c80fbafa6fa6aaf5 0000-0002-5069-7921 Zari Tehrani Zari Tehrani true false 3877d0486fa12a2d0917fd27c74437ec Hina Abbasi Hina Abbasi true false a01150750f1c8eccbfeebffdde3fe8a1 0000-0002-8052-1820 Anitha Devadoss Anitha Devadoss true false 3a4152e0539a5ba25b3bbb9f76033cf7 Jonathan Evans Jonathan Evans true false c7fa5949b8528e048c5b978005f66794 0000-0002-6449-4033 Owen Guy Owen Guy true false 2021-02-02 CHEG Electrochemical biosensors using carbon-based electrodes are being widely developed for the detection of a range of different diseases. Since their sensitivity depends on the surface coverage of bioreceptor moieties, it necessarily depends on the surface coverage of amine precursors. Electrochemical techniques, using ferrocene carboxylic acid as a rapid and cheap assay, were used to assess the surface coverage of amino-phenyl groups attached to the carbon electrode. While the number of electrons transferred in the first step of diazotisation indicated a surface coverage of 8.02 ± 0.2 × l0−10 (mol/cm2), and those transferred in the second step, a reduction of nitrophenyl to amino-phenyl, indicated an amine surface coverage of 4–5 × l0−10 (mol/cm2), the number of electrons transferred during attachment of the amine coupling assay compound, ferrocene carboxylic acid, indicated a much lower available amine coverage of only 2.2 × l0−11 (mol/cm2). Furthermore, the available amine coverage was critically dependent upon the number of cyclic voltammetry cycles used in the reduction, and thus the procedures used in this step influenced the sensitivity of any subsequent sensor. Amine coupling of a carboxyl terminated anti-beta amyloid antibody specific to Aβ(1-42) peptide, a potential marker for Alzheimer’s disease, followed the same pattern of coverage as that observed with ferrocene carboxylic acid, and at optimum amine coverage, the sensitivity of the differential pulse voltammetry sensor was in the range 0–200 ng/mL with the slope of 5.07 µA/ng.mL−1 and R2 = 0.98. Journal Article Nanomaterials 11 2 416 MDPI AG 2079-4991 4-nitrobenzene diazonium; functionalisation; electrochemical; surface coverage; amyloid-β peptide 6 2 2021 2021-02-06 10.3390/nano11020416 COLLEGE NANME Chemical Engineering COLLEGE CODE CHEG Swansea University UKRI, EP/M006301/1 2021-03-04T18:40:40.0252802 2021-02-02T12:16:29.0268330 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Chemistry Zari Tehrani 0000-0002-5069-7921 1 Hina Abbasi 2 Anitha Devadoss 0000-0002-8052-1820 3 Jonathan Evans 4 Owen Guy 0000-0002-6449-4033 5 56167__19311__14c4f92095344f53a0ada79275a58ec7.pdf 56167.VOR.nanomaterials-11-00416.pdf 2021-02-16T13:02:12.7374970 Output 4903581 application/pdf Version of Record true Copyright: the Authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited true eng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance
spellingShingle Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance
Zari Tehrani
Hina Abbasi
Anitha Devadoss
Jonathan Evans
Owen Guy
title_short Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance
title_full Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance
title_fullStr Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance
title_full_unstemmed Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance
title_sort Assessing Surface Coverage of Aminophenyl Bonding Sites on Diazotised Glassy Carbon Electrodes for Optimised Electrochemical Biosensor Performance
author_id_str_mv fd8e614b01086804c80fbafa6fa6aaf5
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author_id_fullname_str_mv fd8e614b01086804c80fbafa6fa6aaf5_***_Zari Tehrani
3877d0486fa12a2d0917fd27c74437ec_***_Hina Abbasi
a01150750f1c8eccbfeebffdde3fe8a1_***_Anitha Devadoss
3a4152e0539a5ba25b3bbb9f76033cf7_***_Jonathan Evans
c7fa5949b8528e048c5b978005f66794_***_Owen Guy
author Zari Tehrani
Hina Abbasi
Anitha Devadoss
Jonathan Evans
Owen Guy
author2 Zari Tehrani
Hina Abbasi
Anitha Devadoss
Jonathan Evans
Owen Guy
format Journal article
container_title Nanomaterials
container_volume 11
container_issue 2
container_start_page 416
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 2079-4991
doi_str_mv 10.3390/nano11020416
publisher MDPI AG
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
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hierarchy_top_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Chemistry{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Chemistry
document_store_str 1
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description Electrochemical biosensors using carbon-based electrodes are being widely developed for the detection of a range of different diseases. Since their sensitivity depends on the surface coverage of bioreceptor moieties, it necessarily depends on the surface coverage of amine precursors. Electrochemical techniques, using ferrocene carboxylic acid as a rapid and cheap assay, were used to assess the surface coverage of amino-phenyl groups attached to the carbon electrode. While the number of electrons transferred in the first step of diazotisation indicated a surface coverage of 8.02 ± 0.2 × l0−10 (mol/cm2), and those transferred in the second step, a reduction of nitrophenyl to amino-phenyl, indicated an amine surface coverage of 4–5 × l0−10 (mol/cm2), the number of electrons transferred during attachment of the amine coupling assay compound, ferrocene carboxylic acid, indicated a much lower available amine coverage of only 2.2 × l0−11 (mol/cm2). Furthermore, the available amine coverage was critically dependent upon the number of cyclic voltammetry cycles used in the reduction, and thus the procedures used in this step influenced the sensitivity of any subsequent sensor. Amine coupling of a carboxyl terminated anti-beta amyloid antibody specific to Aβ(1-42) peptide, a potential marker for Alzheimer’s disease, followed the same pattern of coverage as that observed with ferrocene carboxylic acid, and at optimum amine coverage, the sensitivity of the differential pulse voltammetry sensor was in the range 0–200 ng/mL with the slope of 5.07 µA/ng.mL−1 and R2 = 0.98.
published_date 2021-02-06T04:07:23Z
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