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Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity

Muhammad Ali, Jacob Mitchell, Gregory Burwell Orcid Logo, Klaudia Rejnhard, Cerys Jenkins, Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi, Sanjiv Sharma Orcid Logo, Owen Guy Orcid Logo

Nanomaterials, Volume: 11, Issue: 8, Start page: 2121

Swansea University Authors: Muhammad Ali, Jacob Mitchell, Gregory Burwell Orcid Logo, Klaudia Rejnhard, Cerys Jenkins, Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi, Sanjiv Sharma Orcid Logo, Owen Guy Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.3390/nano11082121

Abstract

Graphene-based point-of-care (PoC) and chemical sensors can be fabricated using photolithographic processes at wafer-scale. However, these approaches are known to leave polymerresidues on the graphene surface, which are difficult to remove completely. In addition, graphenegrowth and transfer process...

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Published in: Nanomaterials
ISSN: 2079-4991
Published: MDPI AG 2021
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However, these approaches are known to leave polymerresidues on the graphene surface, which are difficult to remove completely. In addition, graphenegrowth and transfer processes can introduce defects into the graphene layer. Both defects and resistcontamination can affect the homogeneity of graphene-based PoC sensors, leading to inconsistentdevice performance and unreliable sensing. Sensor reliability is also affected by the harsh chemicalenvironments used for chemical functionalisation of graphene PoC sensors, which can degrade partsof the sensor device. Therefore, a reliable, wafer-scale method of passivation, which isolates thegraphene from the rest of the device, protecting the less robust device features from any aggressive chemicals, must be devised. This work covers the application of molecular vapour depositiontechnology to create a dielectric passivation film that protects graphene-based biosensing devicesfrom harsh chemicals. We utilise a previously reported &#x201C;healing effect&#x201D; of Al2O3 on graphene toreduce photoresist residue from the graphene surface and reduce the prevalence of graphene defects to improve graphene device homogeneity. 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J.J.M., K.R., and G.B. acknowledge the financial support from Avenues of Commercialisation of Nano &amp; Micro Technologies (ACNM) Operation funded by the European Regional Development Fund via the Welsh Government. K.R. is funded by the EPSRC DTP program and by the Welsh Government&#x2019;s Ser Cymru II program (Sustainable Advanced Materials). 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spelling 2021-10-21T16:34:26.6034949 v2 58054 2021-09-23 Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity 103ad6374ddc3a36f8d0609a8f471535 Muhammad Ali Muhammad Ali true false 522a9b94c350f5977584e0fd942facdc Jacob Mitchell Jacob Mitchell true false 49890fbfbe127d4ae94bc10dc2b24199 0000-0002-2534-9626 Gregory Burwell Gregory Burwell true false 8cd356436235507d592fc26e3faac5f5 Klaudia Rejnhard Klaudia Rejnhard true false 263320f2aa9c80138c5a1ca44635b6ed Cerys Jenkins Cerys Jenkins true false 974f6a7393c1f088d58aeeea07d80363 Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi true false b6b7506358522f607b171ec9c94757b7 0000-0003-3828-737X Sanjiv Sharma Sanjiv Sharma true false c7fa5949b8528e048c5b978005f66794 0000-0002-6449-4033 Owen Guy Owen Guy true false 2021-09-23 CHEM Graphene-based point-of-care (PoC) and chemical sensors can be fabricated using photolithographic processes at wafer-scale. However, these approaches are known to leave polymerresidues on the graphene surface, which are difficult to remove completely. In addition, graphenegrowth and transfer processes can introduce defects into the graphene layer. Both defects and resistcontamination can affect the homogeneity of graphene-based PoC sensors, leading to inconsistentdevice performance and unreliable sensing. Sensor reliability is also affected by the harsh chemicalenvironments used for chemical functionalisation of graphene PoC sensors, which can degrade partsof the sensor device. Therefore, a reliable, wafer-scale method of passivation, which isolates thegraphene from the rest of the device, protecting the less robust device features from any aggressive chemicals, must be devised. This work covers the application of molecular vapour depositiontechnology to create a dielectric passivation film that protects graphene-based biosensing devicesfrom harsh chemicals. We utilise a previously reported “healing effect” of Al2O3 on graphene toreduce photoresist residue from the graphene surface and reduce the prevalence of graphene defects to improve graphene device homogeneity. The improvement in device consistency allows formore reliable, homogeneous graphene devices, that can be fabricated at wafer-scale for sensing andbiosensing applications. Journal Article Nanomaterials 11 8 2121 MDPI AG 2079-4991 graphene; passivation; molecular vapour deposition; biosensors; aluminium oxide 20 8 2021 2021-08-20 10.3390/nano11082121 COLLEGE NANME Chemistry COLLEGE CODE CHEM Swansea University SU College/Department paid the OA fee This research was funded by Innovate UK under the Newton Fund-China-UK Research and Innovation Bridges Competition 2015 (File Ref: 102877), Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships (KESS), and the Application Specific Semiconductor Etch Technologies (ASSET) Project funded by the European Regional Development Fund via the Welsh Governments Smart Expertise Operation. J.J.M., K.R., and G.B. acknowledge the financial support from Avenues of Commercialisation of Nano & Micro Technologies (ACNM) Operation funded by the European Regional Development Fund via the Welsh Government. K.R. is funded by the EPSRC DTP program and by the Welsh Government’s Ser Cymru II program (Sustainable Advanced Materials). Funding from the Capacity Builder Accelerator Programs through the European Regional Development Fund, Welsh European Funding Office, and Swansea University Strategic Initiative in Sustainable Advanced Materials is also acknowledged. 2021-10-21T16:34:26.6034949 2021-09-23T14:25:57.1440531 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Chemistry Muhammad Ali 1 Jacob Mitchell 2 Gregory Burwell 0000-0002-2534-9626 3 Klaudia Rejnhard 4 Cerys Jenkins 5 Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi 6 Sanjiv Sharma 0000-0003-3828-737X 7 Owen Guy 0000-0002-6449-4033 8 58054__21096__867bc275c69d4a28abaea0f4e48cdeac.pdf 58054.VOR.pdf 2021-10-05T16:22:48.8898816 Output 5056550 application/pdf Version of Record true Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. true eng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity
spellingShingle Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity
Muhammad Ali
Jacob Mitchell
Gregory Burwell
Klaudia Rejnhard
Cerys Jenkins
Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi
Sanjiv Sharma
Owen Guy
title_short Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity
title_full Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity
title_fullStr Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity
title_full_unstemmed Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity
title_sort Application of Molecular Vapour Deposited Al2O3 for Graphene-Based Biosensor Passivation and Improvements in Graphene Device Homogeneity
author_id_str_mv 103ad6374ddc3a36f8d0609a8f471535
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author_id_fullname_str_mv 103ad6374ddc3a36f8d0609a8f471535_***_Muhammad Ali
522a9b94c350f5977584e0fd942facdc_***_Jacob Mitchell
49890fbfbe127d4ae94bc10dc2b24199_***_Gregory Burwell
8cd356436235507d592fc26e3faac5f5_***_Klaudia Rejnhard
263320f2aa9c80138c5a1ca44635b6ed_***_Cerys Jenkins
974f6a7393c1f088d58aeeea07d80363_***_Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi
b6b7506358522f607b171ec9c94757b7_***_Sanjiv Sharma
c7fa5949b8528e048c5b978005f66794_***_Owen Guy
author Muhammad Ali
Jacob Mitchell
Gregory Burwell
Klaudia Rejnhard
Cerys Jenkins
Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi
Sanjiv Sharma
Owen Guy
author2 Muhammad Ali
Jacob Mitchell
Gregory Burwell
Klaudia Rejnhard
Cerys Jenkins
Ehsaneh Daghigh Ahmadi
Sanjiv Sharma
Owen Guy
format Journal article
container_title Nanomaterials
container_volume 11
container_issue 8
container_start_page 2121
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 2079-4991
doi_str_mv 10.3390/nano11082121
publisher MDPI AG
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Chemistry{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Chemistry
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description Graphene-based point-of-care (PoC) and chemical sensors can be fabricated using photolithographic processes at wafer-scale. However, these approaches are known to leave polymerresidues on the graphene surface, which are difficult to remove completely. In addition, graphenegrowth and transfer processes can introduce defects into the graphene layer. Both defects and resistcontamination can affect the homogeneity of graphene-based PoC sensors, leading to inconsistentdevice performance and unreliable sensing. Sensor reliability is also affected by the harsh chemicalenvironments used for chemical functionalisation of graphene PoC sensors, which can degrade partsof the sensor device. Therefore, a reliable, wafer-scale method of passivation, which isolates thegraphene from the rest of the device, protecting the less robust device features from any aggressive chemicals, must be devised. This work covers the application of molecular vapour depositiontechnology to create a dielectric passivation film that protects graphene-based biosensing devicesfrom harsh chemicals. We utilise a previously reported “healing effect” of Al2O3 on graphene toreduce photoresist residue from the graphene surface and reduce the prevalence of graphene defects to improve graphene device homogeneity. The improvement in device consistency allows formore reliable, homogeneous graphene devices, that can be fabricated at wafer-scale for sensing andbiosensing applications.
published_date 2021-08-20T04:10:25Z
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