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Mechanical Studies of the Third Dimension in Cancer: From 2D to 3D Model / Francesca Paradiso, Stefano Serpelloni, Lewis Francis, Francesca Taraballi

International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume: 22, Issue: 18, Start page: 10098

Swansea University Author: Lewis Francis

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DOI (Published version): 10.3390/ijms221810098

Abstract

From the development of self-aggregating, scaffold-free multicellular spheroids to the inclusion of scaffold systems, 3D models have progressively increased in complexity to better mimic native tissues. The inclusion of a third dimension in cancer models allows researchers to zoom out from a signifi...

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Published in: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ISSN: 1422-0067
Published: MDPI AG 2021
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa58317
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Abstract: From the development of self-aggregating, scaffold-free multicellular spheroids to the inclusion of scaffold systems, 3D models have progressively increased in complexity to better mimic native tissues. The inclusion of a third dimension in cancer models allows researchers to zoom out from a significant but limited cancer cell research approach to a wider investigation of the tumor microenvironment. This model can include multiple cell types and many elements from the extracellular matrix (ECM), which provides mechanical support for the tissue, mediates cell-microenvironment interactions, and plays a key role in cancer cell invasion. Both biochemical and biophysical signals from the extracellular space strongly influence cell fate, the epigenetic landscape, and gene expression. Specifically, a detailed mechanistic understanding of tumor cell-ECM interactions, especially during cancer invasion, is lacking. In this review, we focus on the latest achievements in the study of ECM biomechanics and mechanosensing in cancer on 3D scaffold-based and scaffold-free models, focusing on each platform's level of complexity, up-to-date mechanical tests performed, limitations, and potential for further improvements.
Keywords: microenvironment, 3D model, mechanics, biomaterials, cancer, mechanosensing
College: Swansea University Medical School
Funders: Celtic Advanced Life Science Innovation Network, an Ireland Wales 2014–2020 programme part funded by the European Regional Development Fund through the Welsh Government
Issue: 18
Start Page: 10098