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Deducing the cellular mechanisms associated with the potential genotoxic impact of gold and silver engineered nanoparticles upon different lung epithelial cell lines <i>in vitro</i>
Nanotoxicology, Volume: 16, Issue: 1, Pages: 52 - 72
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Human ENP exposure is inevitable and the novel, size dependent physico-chemical properties that enable ENPs to be beneficial in innovative technologies are concomitantly causing heightened public concerns as to their potential adverse effects upon human health. This study aims to deduce the mechanis...
Informa UK Limited
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Human ENP exposure is inevitable and the novel, size dependent physico-chemical properties that enable ENPs to be beneficial in innovative technologies are concomitantly causing heightened public concerns as to their potential adverse effects upon human health. This study aims to deduce the mechanisms associated with potential ENP mediated (geno)toxicity and impact upon telomere integrity, if any, of varying concentrations of both ~16 nm (4.34x10-3 - 17.36x10-3 mg/mL) Gold (Au) and ~14 nm (0.85x10-5 - 3.32x10-5 mg/mL) Silver (Ag) ENPs upon two commonly used lung epithelial cell lines, 16HBE14o- and A549. Following cytotoxicity analysis (via Trypan Blue and Lactate Dehydrogenase assay), two sub-lethal concentrations were selected for genotoxicity analysis using the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay. Whilst both ENP types induced significant oxidative stress, Ag ENPs (1.66x10-5 mg/mL) did not display a significant genotoxic response in either epithelial cell lines, but Au ENPs (8.68x10-3 mg/mL) showed a highly significant 2.63-fold and 2.4-fold increase in micronucleus frequency in A549 and 16HBE14o- cells respectively. It is hypothesised that the DNA damage induced by acute 24-hour Au ENP exposure resulted in a cell cycle stall indicated by the increased mononuclear cell fraction (>6.0-fold) and cytostasis level. Albeit insignificant, a small reduction in telomere length was observed following acute exposure to both ENPs which could indicate potential for ENP mediated telomere attrition. Finally, from the data shown, both in vitro lung cell cultures (16HBE14o- and A549) are equally as suitable and reliable for the in vitro ENP hazard identification approach adopted in this study.
Gold; silver; engineered nanoparticles; in vitro genotoxicity; lung epithelial cell lines
Swansea University Medical School