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Stress-Mediated Responses of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae When Exposed to Metarhizium brunneum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Diptera: Culicidae)
Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume: 59, Issue: 5, Pages: 1732 - 1740
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Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are capable of vectoring a wide range of diseases including dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, with approximately half of the worlds’ population at risk from such diseases. Development of combined predator–parasite treatments for the control of larvae consistently demon...
|Published in:||Journal of Medical Entomology|
Oxford University Press (OUP)
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Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are capable of vectoring a wide range of diseases including dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses, with approximately half of the worlds’ population at risk from such diseases. Development of combined predator–parasite treatments for the control of larvae consistently demonstrates increased efficacy over single-agent treatments, however, the mechanism behind the interaction remains unknown. Treatments using the natural predator Toxorhynchites brevipalpis and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum were applied in the laboratory against Ae. aegypti larvae as both individual and combined treatments to determine the levels of interaction between control strategies. Parallel experiments involved the removal of larvae from test arenas at set intervals during the course of the trial to record whole body caspase and phenoloxidase activities. This was measured via luminometric assay to measure larval stress factors underlying the interactions. Combined Metarhizium and Toxorhynchites treatments were seen to drastically reduce lethal times as compared to individual treatments. This was accompanied by increased phenoloxidase and caspase activities in combination treatments after 18 h (p < 0.001). The sharp increases in caspase and phenoloxidase activities suggest that combined treatments act to increase stress factor responses in the larvae that result in rapid mortality above that of either control agent individually. This work concludes that the underlying mechanism for increased lethality in combined parasite–predator treatments may be related to additive stress factors induced within the target host larvae.
Aedes, Toxorhynchites, Metarhizium, caspase, phenoloxidase
Faculty of Science and Engineering
This research has been supported by the Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships (KESS 2) initiative; part funded by the Welsh Government’s European Social Fund (ESF) convergence program for West Wales and the Valleys with industry support from AgriSense BCS Ltd., alongside the Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Tabuk, Grant no. S-1440-0214.