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Economic analysis of integrating photovoltaics and battery energy storage system in an office building

Guangling Zhao, Joanna Clarke, Justin Searle Orcid Logo, Richard Lewis, Jenny Baker Orcid Logo

Energy and Buildings, Volume: 284, Start page: 112885

Swansea University Authors: Guangling Zhao, Joanna Clarke, Justin Searle Orcid Logo, Richard Lewis, Jenny Baker Orcid Logo

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Abstract

The concept of ‘Active Building’ refers to any building, such as factories, offices, homes, and other structures in the built environment, which are equipped to conserve, generate, store, and release energy in the UK. One such Active Building was built at Swansea University in the UK in 2018 and is...

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Published in: Energy and Buildings
ISSN: 0378-7788
Published: Elsevier BV 2023
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa62676
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Abstract: The concept of ‘Active Building’ refers to any building, such as factories, offices, homes, and other structures in the built environment, which are equipped to conserve, generate, store, and release energy in the UK. One such Active Building was built at Swansea University in the UK in 2018 and is currently used as a small office including well fare facilities. The objective of this study is to analyse the economic performance of an Active Building, incorporating building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries with real building operational profiles and metered energy load profiles. The cost covers the capital cost of 22 kWp BIPV and 110 kWh Li-ion battery, and electricity cost from the electric grid with two types of time of use electricity tariffs - South Wales (SW) time of use tariff and Red, Amber, and Green (RAG) rates, and the potential carbon cost of electricity supplied from the Wales electric grid and generated from the Active Building. Four battery operational strategies are designed, and battery status of charge and electricity flow are monitored. The analysis is undertaken on the BIPV units with or without Li-ion batteries under various scenarios. The results show that the investment of BIPV units without Li-ion batteries can make a profit within the lifetime of BIPV in the current electricity market. However, the current Li-ion battery storage does not compensate for its capital cost from the reduced economic value obtained from the BIPV system when the electricity is curtailed. Even though the current economic analysis of the Active Building installing BIPV and battery is not convincing at the current capital price, this combination can enable the Active Building to be independent of the electric grid and to balance electricity demand and generation itself. The analysis will demonstrate the market conditions required to make these operational benefits cost-effective.
Keywords: Economic Analysis; BIPV; LFP battery storage; Active building
College: Faculty of Science and Engineering
Funders: This work has received funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through ECR Fellowship NoRESt (EP/ S03711X/1) and SPECIFIC Innovation and Knowledge Centre (EP/ N020863/1 and EP/P030831/1). EP/T028513/1 Application Targeted and Integrated Photovoltaics - Enhancing UK Capability in Solar.
Start Page: 112885