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Effects on environmental impacts of introducing electric vehicle batteries as storage - A case study of the United Kingdom

Guangling Zhao, Jenny Baker Orcid Logo

Energy Strategy Reviews, Volume: 40, Start page: 100819

Swansea University Authors: Guangling Zhao, Jenny Baker Orcid Logo

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Abstract

This paper examines the potential environmental impact of using electric vehicle batteries as storage in relation to an energy system as it moves towards the goal of net-zero emissions in 2050. The electrified transportation sector is an inevitable step towards a more sustainable energy system to me...

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Published in: Energy Strategy Reviews
ISSN: 2211-467X
Published: Elsevier BV 2022
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa59410
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Abstract: This paper examines the potential environmental impact of using electric vehicle batteries as storage in relation to an energy system as it moves towards the goal of net-zero emissions in 2050. The electrified transportation sector is an inevitable step towards a more sustainable energy system to meet climate change mitigation. Large-scale deployment of electric vehicles increases electricity demand whilst simultaneously presenting an opportunity to use electric vehicle batteries to shift peak demand through vehicle to grid, battery swapping, and reuse of retired vehicle batteries. The environmental consequence of using electric vehicle batteries as energy storage is analysed in the context of energy scenarios in 2050 in the United Kingdom. The results show that using an electric vehicle battery for energy storage through battery swapping can help decrease investigated environmental impacts; a further reduction can be achieved by using retired electric vehicle batteries. Using an electric vehicle battery for energy storage through a vehicle to grid mechanism has the potential to reduce environmental impacts if the impact of cycle degradation is minimal compared with calendar degradation. This balance is dependent upon the lithium-ion chemistry, temperature and mileage driven.
Keywords: Vehicle to grid; Life cycle assessment; Battery swapping; Electric vehicle battery
College: Faculty of Science and Engineering
Funders: This work was supported by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) through ECR Fellowship NoRESt (EP/S03711X/1) and SPECIFIC Innovation and Knowledge Centre (EP/N020863/1 and EP/P030831/1).
Start Page: 100819