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The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films

Ky V. Nguyen, Jan G. Gluschke, Bernard Mostert Orcid Logo, Andrew Nelson Orcid Logo, Gregory Burwell Orcid Logo, Roman W. Lyttleton, Hamish Cavaye Orcid Logo, Rebecca J.L. Welbourn Orcid Logo, Jakob Seidl, Maxime Lagier, Marta Sanchez Miranda, James McGettrick Orcid Logo, Trystan Watson Orcid Logo, Paul Meredith Orcid Logo, Adam P. Micolich Orcid Logo

Advanced Electronic Materials, Volume: 9, Issue: 8

Swansea University Authors: Bernard Mostert Orcid Logo, Gregory Burwell Orcid Logo, James McGettrick Orcid Logo, Trystan Watson Orcid Logo, Paul Meredith Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.1002/aelm.202300199

Abstract

The effect of electron-beam patterning on the water uptake and ionic conductivity of Nafion films using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance studies, neutron reflectometry, and impedance spectroscopy is reported. The aim is to further characterize the nanosc...

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Published in: Advanced Electronic Materials
ISSN: 2199-160X 2199-160X
Published: Wiley
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The aim is to further characterize the nanoscale patterned Nafion structures recently used as a key element in novel ion-to-electron transducers by Gluschke et al. To enable this, the electron beam patterning process is developed for large areas, achieving patterning speeds approaching 1 cm2 h−1, and patterned areas as large as 7 cm2 for the neutron reflectometry studies. It is ultimately shown that electron-beam patterning affects both the water uptake and the ionic conductivity, depending on film thickness. Type-II adsorption isotherm behavior is seen for all films. For thick films (≈230 nm), a strong reduction in water uptake with electron-beam patterning is found. In contrast, for thin films (≈30 nm), electron-beam patterning enhances water uptake. Notably, for either thickness, the reduction in ionic conductivity arising from electron-beam patterning is kept to less than an order of magnitude. 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spelling v2 63731 2023-06-28 The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films a353503c976a7338c7708a32e82f451f 0000-0002-9590-2124 Bernard Mostert Bernard Mostert true false 49890fbfbe127d4ae94bc10dc2b24199 0000-0002-2534-9626 Gregory Burwell Gregory Burwell true false bdbacc591e2de05180e0fd3cc13fa480 0000-0002-7719-2958 James McGettrick James McGettrick true false a210327b52472cfe8df9b8108d661457 0000-0002-8015-1436 Trystan Watson Trystan Watson true false 31e8fe57fa180d418afd48c3af280c2e 0000-0002-9049-7414 Paul Meredith Paul Meredith true false 2023-06-28 SPH The effect of electron-beam patterning on the water uptake and ionic conductivity of Nafion films using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance studies, neutron reflectometry, and impedance spectroscopy is reported. The aim is to further characterize the nanoscale patterned Nafion structures recently used as a key element in novel ion-to-electron transducers by Gluschke et al. To enable this, the electron beam patterning process is developed for large areas, achieving patterning speeds approaching 1 cm2 h−1, and patterned areas as large as 7 cm2 for the neutron reflectometry studies. It is ultimately shown that electron-beam patterning affects both the water uptake and the ionic conductivity, depending on film thickness. Type-II adsorption isotherm behavior is seen for all films. For thick films (≈230 nm), a strong reduction in water uptake with electron-beam patterning is found. In contrast, for thin films (≈30 nm), electron-beam patterning enhances water uptake. Notably, for either thickness, the reduction in ionic conductivity arising from electron-beam patterning is kept to less than an order of magnitude. Mechanisms are proposed for the observed behavior based on the known complex morphology of Nafion films to motivate future studies of electron-beam processed Nafion. Journal Article Advanced Electronic Materials 9 8 Wiley 2199-160X 2199-160X Bioelectronics, electron-beam patterning, ionic conductivity, nafion, neuromorphic computing 0 0 0 0001-01-01 10.1002/aelm.202300199 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aelm.202300199 COLLEGE NANME Physics COLLEGE CODE SPH Swansea University This work was funded by the Australian Research Council (ARC) underDP170104024 and DP170102552, and the Welsh European Funding Office (European Regional Development Fund) through the Sêr Cymru II Program. P.M. is a Sêr Cymru Research Chair and an Honorary Professor at the University of Queensland. A.B.M. contribution was under the Sêr Cymru II fellowship and the results incorporated in this work had received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 663830. The work was performed in part using the NSW and Queens-land nodes of the Australian National Fabrication Facility (ANFF) and the Electron Microscope Unit (EMU) within the Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre (MWAC) at UNSW. The electron-beam patterning was performed in part at Lund Nano Lab at Lund University. The authors acknowledge the provision of beamtime by ANSTO under proposal number P8773. 2023-10-03T15:18:47.4623508 2023-06-28T10:42:28.8564520 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Materials Science and Engineering Ky V. Nguyen 1 Jan G. Gluschke 2 Bernard Mostert 0000-0002-9590-2124 3 Andrew Nelson 0000-0002-4548-3558 4 Gregory Burwell 0000-0002-2534-9626 5 Roman W. Lyttleton 6 Hamish Cavaye 0000-0002-3540-0253 7 Rebecca J.L. Welbourn 0000-0002-4254-5354 8 Jakob Seidl 9 Maxime Lagier 10 Marta Sanchez Miranda 11 James McGettrick 0000-0002-7719-2958 12 Trystan Watson 0000-0002-8015-1436 13 Paul Meredith 0000-0002-9049-7414 14 Adam P. Micolich 0000-0003-2855-3582 15 63731__27996__aaef765a53214af98e551c5f0eb045b9.pdf 63731.pdf 2023-06-28T11:29:30.8268895 Output 1925064 application/pdf Version of Record true This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films
spellingShingle The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films
Bernard Mostert
Gregory Burwell
James McGettrick
Trystan Watson
Paul Meredith
title_short The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films
title_full The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films
title_fullStr The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films
title_full_unstemmed The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films
title_sort The Effect of Direct Electron Beam Patterning on the Water Uptake and Ionic Conductivity of Nafion Thin Films
author_id_str_mv a353503c976a7338c7708a32e82f451f
49890fbfbe127d4ae94bc10dc2b24199
bdbacc591e2de05180e0fd3cc13fa480
a210327b52472cfe8df9b8108d661457
31e8fe57fa180d418afd48c3af280c2e
author_id_fullname_str_mv a353503c976a7338c7708a32e82f451f_***_Bernard Mostert
49890fbfbe127d4ae94bc10dc2b24199_***_Gregory Burwell
bdbacc591e2de05180e0fd3cc13fa480_***_James McGettrick
a210327b52472cfe8df9b8108d661457_***_Trystan Watson
31e8fe57fa180d418afd48c3af280c2e_***_Paul Meredith
author Bernard Mostert
Gregory Burwell
James McGettrick
Trystan Watson
Paul Meredith
author2 Ky V. Nguyen
Jan G. Gluschke
Bernard Mostert
Andrew Nelson
Gregory Burwell
Roman W. Lyttleton
Hamish Cavaye
Rebecca J.L. Welbourn
Jakob Seidl
Maxime Lagier
Marta Sanchez Miranda
James McGettrick
Trystan Watson
Paul Meredith
Adam P. Micolich
format Journal article
container_title Advanced Electronic Materials
container_volume 9
container_issue 8
institution Swansea University
issn 2199-160X
2199-160X
doi_str_mv 10.1002/aelm.202300199
publisher Wiley
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Materials Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Materials Science and Engineering
url http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aelm.202300199
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description The effect of electron-beam patterning on the water uptake and ionic conductivity of Nafion films using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance studies, neutron reflectometry, and impedance spectroscopy is reported. The aim is to further characterize the nanoscale patterned Nafion structures recently used as a key element in novel ion-to-electron transducers by Gluschke et al. To enable this, the electron beam patterning process is developed for large areas, achieving patterning speeds approaching 1 cm2 h−1, and patterned areas as large as 7 cm2 for the neutron reflectometry studies. It is ultimately shown that electron-beam patterning affects both the water uptake and the ionic conductivity, depending on film thickness. Type-II adsorption isotherm behavior is seen for all films. For thick films (≈230 nm), a strong reduction in water uptake with electron-beam patterning is found. In contrast, for thin films (≈30 nm), electron-beam patterning enhances water uptake. Notably, for either thickness, the reduction in ionic conductivity arising from electron-beam patterning is kept to less than an order of magnitude. Mechanisms are proposed for the observed behavior based on the known complex morphology of Nafion films to motivate future studies of electron-beam processed Nafion.
published_date 0001-01-01T15:18:48Z
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