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Anticipated and experienced stigma and discrimination in the workplace among individuals with major depressive disorder in 35 countries: qualitative framework analysis of a mixed-method cross-sectional study

Tine Van Bortel Orcid Logo, Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe Orcid Logo, Samantha Treacy Orcid Logo, Nashi Khan, Uta Ouali, Athula Sumathipala, Vesna Svab, Doaa Nader, Nadia Kadri, Maria Fatima Monteiro, Lee Knifton, Neil Quinn, Chantal Van Audenhove, Antonio Lasalvia, Chiara Bonetto, Graham Thornicroft, Jaap van Weeghel, Evelien Brouwers

BMJ Open, Volume: 14, Issue: 6, Start page: e077528

Swansea University Author: Samantha Treacy Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Objectives: Workplace stigmatisation and discrimination are significant barriers to accessing employment opportunities, reintegration and promotion in the workforce for people with mental illnesses in comparison to other disabilities. This paper presents qualitative evidence of anticipated and exper...

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Published in: BMJ Open
ISSN: 2044-6055 2044-6055
Published: BMJ 2024
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa66830
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Abstract: Objectives: Workplace stigmatisation and discrimination are significant barriers to accessing employment opportunities, reintegration and promotion in the workforce for people with mental illnesses in comparison to other disabilities. This paper presents qualitative evidence of anticipated and experienced workplace stigma and discrimination among individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) in 35 countries, and how these experiences differ across countries based on their Human Development Index (HDI) level.Design: Mixed-method cross-sectional survey.Participants, setting and measures: The qualitative data were gathered as part of the combined European Union Anti-Stigma Programme European Network and global International Study of Discrimination and Stigma Outcomes for Depression studies examining stigma and discrimination among individuals with MDD across 35 countries. Anticipated and experienced stigma and discrimination were assessed using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale version 12 (DISC-12). This study used responses to the open-ended DISC-12 questions related to employment. Data were analysed using the framework analysis method.Results: The framework analysis of qualitative data of 141 participants identified 6 key ‘frames’ exploring (1) participants reported experiences of workplace stigma and discrimination; (2) impact of experienced workplace stigma and discrimination; (3) anticipated workplace stigma and discrimination; (4) ways of coping; (5) positive work experiences and (6) contextualisation of workplace stigma and discrimination. In general, participants from very high HDI countries reported higher levels of anticipated and experienced discrimination than other HDI groups (eg, less understanding and support, being more avoided/shunned, stopping themselves from looking for work because of expectation and fear of discrimination). Furthermore, participants from medium/low HDI countries were more likely to report positive workplace experiences.Conclusions: This study makes a significant contribution towards workplace stigma and discrimination among individuals with MDD, still an under-researched mental health diagnosis. These findings illuminate important relationships that may exist between countries/contexts and stigma and discrimination, identifying that individuals from very high HDI countries were more likely to report anticipated and experienced workplace discrimination.
College: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
Funders: This study arises in part from the Anti Stigma European Network (ASPEN) programme which was in part funded by the European Union Public Health Programme
Issue: 6
Start Page: e077528